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The Vegan Option - Vegetarianism: The Story So Far
31 minutes | a year ago
Spillover Diseases: Covid 19 and other Zoonoses. With Jonna Mazet and Aysha Akhtar
How does animal exploitation increase the emergence of new diseases? With the world fighting a vicious new pandemic, Ian asks a front-line physician, an epidemiologist, a public health expert and activists about how new diseases spill over from other animals, and how factory farming and the wildlife trade raise our vulnerability. Play or download (42MB MP3 30min) (via iTunes) Contributors: Dr Aysha Akhtar (@DrAyshaAkhtar)Dr Laura-Jane Smith (King’s College Hospital) (@DrLauraJane)Prof Jonna Mazet (University of California Davis)(@JonnaMazet)Peter Kemple Hardy (World Animal Protection) Zoonoses and Vegan Activism You’ve probably heard animal activists linking the Covid-19 pandemic to human treatment of animals well before you listened to my show – part of the reason for doing this show was to give people the information to talk about the link without drifting into hyperbole. For example, “Earthling” Ed Winters famously got a roasting in the UK’s tabloid press for a viral Facebook post in which he blamed half a dozen new diseases on meat-eating. From what I’ve learnt doing the show, it was his categorical certainty that’s wrong rather than his general point (and, arguably, tone). I thought his later video on the subject was more nuanced. Has it Been Three Years? It took me almost a year to close VegHist after transmitting the final episode, and then I got distracted by UK politics. (Which, in fairness, is very distracting.) My next goal for The Vegan Option is to do some short videos based on the history series. Of course, as someone who set out to make a series of 10 x 15 minutes but made a ten hour epic instead, I’m not very good at “short”. (I feel a personal sense of triumph that I didn’t have to edit this episode down to the half-hour broadcast slot.) Bibliography 1630116 R52QH3VT items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Cheng, Vincent C. C., Susanna K. P. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo, and Kwok Yung Yuen. 2007. “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as an Agent of Emerging and Reemerging Infection.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews 20 (4): 660–94. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00023-07. CohenJan. 26, Jon, 2020, and 11:25 Pm. 2020. “Wuhan Seafood Market May Not Be Source of Novel Virus Spreading Globally.” Science | AAAS. January 26, 2020. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/wuhan-seafood-market-may-not-be-source-novel-virus-spreading-globally. Johnson, Christine K., Peta L. Hitchens, Pranav S. Pandit, Julie Rushmore, Tierra Smiley Evans, Cristin C. W. Young, and Megan M. Doyle. 2020. “Global Shifts in Mammalian Population Trends Reveal Key Predictors of Virus Spillover Risk.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 287 (1924): 20192736. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.2736. Karesh, William B., Andy Dobson, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Juan Lubroth, Matthew A. Dixon, Malcolm Bennett, Stephen Aldrich, et al. 2012. “Ecology of Zoonoses: Natural and Unnatural Histories.” The Lancet 380 (9857): 1936–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61678-X. Li, Hongying, Emma Mendelsohn, Chen Zong, Wei Zhang, Emily Hagan, Ning Wang, Shiyue Li, et al. 2019. “Human-Animal Interactions and Bat Coronavirus Spillover Potential among Rural Residents in Southern China.” Biosafety and Health 1 (2): 84–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bsheal.2019.10.004. “Zoonotic Diseases | One Health | CDC.” 2020. February 19, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/basics/zoonotic-diseases.html. Credits Theme by Robb Masters. The featured image is CC-BY-SA Scientific Animations, as it is based on their SARS-Cov-2 virus image, combined with a circle of animal kingdom icons for which I’d be happy to credit the original author, if I knew who they were.The post Spillover Diseases: Covid 19 and other Zoonoses. With Jonna Mazet and Aysha Akhtar first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
50 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 15: Liberation. Veganism, hippies, and the animal rights movement. With Sam Calvert and Maneka Gandhi; at London, Cambridge, and Bangalore
How has western vegetarianism risen, within living memory, from fringe to mainstream choice? And how has veganism gone from nowhere to everywhere? Episode 15: Liberation This final episode recounts the growth of veganism, vegetarianism, and the modern animal advocacy movement. Ian treads in the footsteps of the handful of pioneers who set up the vegan movement in the 1940s, and meets a life vegan born in 1951. He investigates the sixties counterculture that combined the philosophy of ethics, activism, and new ways of living and working, visiting one of Britain’s first vegetarian wholefood co-operatives. And as vegetarian and vegan movements increasingly link up around the world, he looks at developments in China and India. In New Delhi, he meets the vegan politician who is also the most prominent animal advocate in the world’s largest democracy. Play or download (70MB MP3 49min) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Dr Samantha Calvert (@SamCalvert) Edwin Cluer, Wimbledon Prof Julia Twigg (University of Kent, Canterbury) Reg Taylor, founder of the precursor of Suma Wholefoods David Jarvis, Les, George, and others, Arjuna Wholefoods Cambridge Dr Vincent Goossaert (Groupe Sociétés, Religions, Laïcités), Paris Dr James Staples (University of Brunel, London) Maneka Gandhi (Parliament of India) (People for Animals) (Wikipedia) Members of Bengaluru Vegans (Vegan Bangalore on Facebook) Archive Donald Watson archive interview with George Rodger by kind permission of The Vegan Society (transcript of full interview [PDF]). Jay Dinshah at Vegan Society of South Jersey, Health Expo. Moorestown, NJ, USA, Nov 10 1990, courtesy of The American Vegan Society Richard Ryder, talking in 2001’s “Animal Rights”, courtesy of Vegetarian Guides. Francis Moore Lappé, talking in Diet for a Small Planet, 1974, courtesy of Bulldog Films. The Vegeburger Rap, courtesy of Gregory Sams Open Door, 1976, by the BBC and The Vegan Society Readings Various (Alice Bonus, Dugald Semple, Florence Sexton inter alia) “The Vegetarian Messenger and Health Review”, 1909-12, referenced in Leneman (see below) A Guthrie Badenoch, Letter, British Medical Journal, 1952 Cyril Pink, 1952, see below Ruth Harrison, the start of “Animal Machines”, 1964 Production Notes There was a gap of months between the broadcast edit and the podcast of this episode. This is partially because the episode had quite a different script for broadcast and podcast. Many of you who listen to the podcast are also part of the movement this episode is about; it’s not like previous episodes, where I can talk about long gone vegetarian groups in the third person on the certain basis that no listeners are part of them. I also wanted to give the podcast edit more of a global scope. It’s okay for a radio show broadcast in London to centre on London. In this episode, I talk more about what’s going on in the rest of the world. And I think that trimming the episode to the broadcast slot took a lot of stuff out; the podcast edit is two thirds longer. The conclusion at the end is completely different – and if you’re interested you can listen to the broadcast edit of Episode 15 on the Resonance FM Mixcloud. The End and the Beginning Kickstarter backers and Resonance FM listeners might notice I changed the title. From the start of the project, the final episode title(s) were going to be “The End and the Beginning”, referring to Donald Watson’s comment that “vegan” was the beginning and end of “vegetarianism”. There were a couple of problems with this. Firstly, I never explained the reference in the show. In fact, as I learnt from Samantha Calvert during production, Donald Watson originally had a very different background for the word vegan. (Via the Hendersons suggesting “Allvega”, probably inspired by the “Vega” restaurant.) Plus, coy references for episode titles don’t cut much ice with search engines. So I went for “Liberation”, as a nod to Peter Singer’s “Animal Liberation”, and a word that became very important to the movement in the late twentieth century. Birth of the Vegan Society As veganism becomes more influential, there are more active debates about its beginnings. My comments on that will be a blog post of their own, but let me confess to leaving a couple of things out of the show. Dr Samantha Calvert credits Elsie Shrigley as a co-founder of the Vegan Society, because of her role bringing people together. I missed that out because I don’t think it’s that unambiguous, and there wasn’t time to delve into it. One interesting thing that got cut for time was how the vegan movement got some national attention in its first ten years. I didn’t have time to mention them all in the show: Dec 1946 – Vegan meal in House of Commons, Westminster Mar 1951 – The Daily Mirror publishes a sympathetic article about the Vegan Society with the headline “600 people who’ll only kick a vegetarian football.” Mar 1951 – BBC broadcasts two vegan episodes of its “Vegetarian Dishes” TV cookery show The Cluers You can read Mabel Cluer’s “family notes” in the Spring 1959 edition of The Vegan. The Vegan Society published a feature interview with Mabel Cluer on their 70th anniversary. Alan Cluer’s reminiscences of running a health food shop in Wimbledon were printed in the Wimbledon Society Newsletter February 1989 (PDF). For full disclosure, the Cluers ate honey. No-one in organised veganism seemed to challenge the Cluers’ status as vegans, either then or now, so I haven’t either. (Even though many contemporaries clearly thought honey wasn’t vegan; I suspect people were less likely to jump from “I think that isn’t vegan” to “So you’re not a vegan” back then.) How many vegetarians and vegans? I tried to trace changes in the numbers of vegetarians, but the number of people who describe themselves as vegetarian varies enormously according to how you ask the question. And most of these surveys haven’t publicly revealed their questions. The number of vegetarians can be three times higher if you ask “are you vegetarian?” instead of breaking it down into “Do you eat (a) red meat (b) poultry (c) fish? Please tick where applicable.” And the margin of error is often higher than the percentage of vegetarians or vegans. One ill-constructed British survey in 2003 put 2% of the population as vegetarian, 7% as “vegetarian who eats fish” and 3% as “vegan or other”. This led to much vegan rejoicing, until folk realised that the 3% included confused omnivores. So the numbers jump up and down. Maurer 2002 p16 put the number of vegetarians in the USA at 1%-2.5%. In Britain, there was a jump in the numbers identifying as vegetarian in the 1980s – from 2.1% in 1984 to 5.4% in 1997. One person who was across the surveys speculated this represented a real growth in vegetarianism in the midst of the UK’s Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) scare, and that some people returned partially to meat-eating whilst still thinking of themselves as vegetarian. The Vegan Society commissioned a very thorough survey from MORI in 2016, suggesting 3.25% of the British population is vegetarian, including 1.05% vegan. That suggests a slow (if any) rise in the number of vegetarians, but a very dramatic increase in the proportion who are vegan. Of course, the western vegetarians and vegans are a blip compared to south and east Asia. In India, 40% of the population is vegetarian, including 31% who follow the traditional Indian definition and also exclude eggs. In Memoriam I’d like to take a moment to remember the people who passed away during the time I was working on the series. (These are also people I never interviewed before it was too late.) Folk interested in vegetarian history might have followed the prolific work of Rynn Berry, who died at the start of 2014. Mabel Cluer herself died in 2015. Mary Bryniak, a founder member of the Vegan Society and part of a pioneer veganic gardening family, died later that year. Joan Court was a veteran Animal Rights campaigner who met Gandhi whilst working in India in the 1940s. And finally, I’d like to mention a place. London’s last vegetarian vestige of the hippy era – Food for Thought – was a victim of rising rents. It was open from 1971 to 2015. Roann Ghosh’s short film about it portrays it perfectly. Credits The theme music is by Robb Masters. Variations for the Healing of Arinushka by Arvo Pärt is performed CC-BY Markus Staab. Les Sylvains, Op. 60 by Cécile Chaminade is performed CC-BY Takashi Sato, and the clip of “Summer of Love” is CC-BY Saul Rouda. With the voices of Amy Saul, Jeremy Hancock, Brian Roberts, Robert MacDougall, Julie Cummings, Akshay Dave, and Sally Beaumont. Episode 15 is generously sponsored by Kickstarter backer Jaysee Costa. The cover picture is of the 2017 Animal Rights march, in London, by “Animal Rights Photography”, used with permission. Bibliography 1630116 HSHUVJDE items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada. 2003. “Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian Diets.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–65. https://doi.org/10.1053/jada.2003.50142. Badenoch, A. Guthrie. 1952. “Diet and Stamina.” Br Med J 2 (4785): 668–668. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4785.668-c. Calvert, Samantha Jane. 2014. Ripened by Human Determination. Birmingham: The Vegan Society. https://www.vegansociety.com/sites/default/files/uploads/Ripened%20by%20human%20determination.pdf. Caplan, Pat. 2008. “Crossing the Veg/Non-Veg Divide: Commensality and Sociality Among the Middle Classes in Madras/Chennai.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 31 (1): 118–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00856400701874742. Dave, Naisargi N. 2014. “Witness: Humans, Animals, and the Politics of Becoming.” Cultural Anthropology 29 (3): 433–56. https://doi.org/10.14506/ca29.3.01. Dave, Naisargi N. 2014. “Witness: Humans, Animals, and the Politics of Becoming.” Cultural Anthropology 29 (3): 433–56. https://doi.org/10.14506/ca29.3.01. Desai, Amit. 2008. “Subaltern Vegetarianism: Witchcraft, Embodiment and Sociality in Central India.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 31 (1): 96–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/00856400701874734. Donner, Henrike. 2008. “New Vegetarianism: Food, Gender and Neo-Liberal Regimes in Bengali Middle-Class Families.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 31 (1): 143–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/00856400701874759. Klein, Jakob A. 2008. “Afterword: Comparing Vegetarianisms.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 31 (1): 199–212. https://doi.org/10.1080/00856400701874767. Leneman, Leah. 1999. “No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944.” Society & Animals 7 (3): 219–28. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853099X00095. Pink, Cyril. 1952. “The Position of Veganism in 1952.” The Vegetarian News. 31 (275). Maurer, Donna. 2002. Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Shrigley, Elsie B. 1954. “The First Decade: 1944-1954.” The Vegan, 1954. https://issuu.com/vegan_society/docs/the-vegan-winter-1954/18. Twigg, Julia. 2001. “The Vegetarian Movement in England, 1847-1981: With Particular Reference to Its Ideology.” http://www.ivu.org/history/thesis/. Watson, Donald. 1965. “The Early History of the Vegan Movement.” The Vegan, Autumn 1965. https://issuu.com/vegan_society/docs/the-vegan-autumn-1965---21st-anniversary-issue/6. Wokes, F., J. Badenoch, and H. M. Sinclair. 1955. “Human Dietary Deficiency of Vitamin B12.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 3 (5): 375–82. The post VegHist Ep 15: Liberation. Veganism, hippies, and the animal rights movement. With Sam Calvert and Maneka Gandhi; at London, Cambridge, and Bangalore first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
44 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 14: Diet Reform. On consumerism, lebensreform, and Gandhi; with Ramachandra Guha; at Sabarmati Ashram, India
In the nineteenth century, in America and Germany, new forms of vegetarianism emerge – from the individualistic consumer vegetarianism of America, to the back-to-nature European “life reform” movement. Episode 14: Diet Reform As animal agriculture industrialises and meat consumption rises, the ways that food reformers respond are familiar to people today – the plant-based meat, the celebrity athletes, and the reformers who worship nature, sunshine, and fresh air. Ian goes to the shops to discover just how many vegetarian staples he owes to pioneers like John Harvey Kellogg. In Sabarmati, northwest India, he visits the Ashram of Mahatma Mohandas K Gandhi. Play or download (62MB MP3 44min) (via iTunes) or read transcript Contributors: Dr Adam Shprintzen, (Marywood University, Scranton PA) (@VegHistory) Dr Julia Twigg (University of Kent) Megha Todi (on Instagram) (Sabarmati Ashram Archives) Ramachandra Guha (ramachandraguha.in) (@Ram_Guha) (on Wikipedia) Readings Ellen White, vision, from “A Brief History of Seventh-Day Adventists”, by George R Knight, 2004 (PDF), p69 Protose & Nuttose advertisement from “Battle Creek Foods for Health”, 1920, cited in Shprintzen p133 Letter from a suffragette, “Vegetarian Messenger” vol 10, no. 12, 1907, cited in Shprintzen p180 Bernarr Macfadden, “Eating for Health and Strength”, 1921 Harry Hedden, “Youthful at 82” from Physical Culture magazine, 1910 (Vol 23 p107) Maroons Chant, from Shprintzen p201 Leo Tolstoy, “The First Step”, 1883 Dugald Semple, “worship the divine” remark from letter in “The Vegetarian Messenger and Health Review”, 1912 from “Joy in Living”, 1957 (“Food Economy Lectures”) p47 onwards. Mikkel Hindhede, “The Effect of Food Restriction During War on Mortality in Copenhagen”, JAMA. 1920;74(6):381-382. doi:10.1001/jama.1920.02620060015005 Mohandas K Gandhi Vows of Sabarmati Ashram From “The Story of My Experiments with Truth”, 1927 From “A Speech to the London Vegetarian Society”, 1931 Louis Rimbault on friction in communes in “Libération économique”, Le Néo-Naturien, n° 16, Feb 1924 cited by LaRotative.info George Butaud, from “Les conséquences pratiques du végétalisme intégral sur l’évolution individuelle et sociale“, 1922, cited by LiberationAnimale.com Sophie Zaikowska, “Végétalisme”, from “l’Encyclopédie anarchiste”, 1934 Postcard, from Frieder Kiel, Eden, 1934 (see pic above) Hans Georg Müller, in “Leib und Leben”, 1936, cited by Fritzen p77 See also the Henry Salt Archive: John Edmundson runs the Henry Salt Archive and the Ernest Bell Library, and blogs a lots about early organised vegetarianism for Happy Cow, including: Dugald & Cathy Semple – Vegan Pionneers Dugald Semple’s book “Joys of the Simple Life” 1893 Chicago World’s Fair Basconnaise (French anarchist) Salad Recipe Les Végétaliens Vegetarian pins and badges from the late 19th & early 20th centuries. Production Diary Nuttolene The peanut loaf that Kellogg sold as “Nuttolene” (and Granovita sell as “Nut luncheon”) is opened like old-fashioned tinned meat. You open both ends, loosen it with a knife, push it out, and slice it. Here’s what I was eating. Lebensreform This is one episode where I wanted to find a bit more “colour”, particularly about Lebensreform. But for once, I couldn’t get past the language barrier – I don’t speak German, and was unlucky in terms of finding someone to talk in English, particularly when I avoid recording over the Internet. The orchard settlement Eden still exists near Berlin (link in German) and has open days. (I regret that I didn’t manage to arrange a visit.) Nevertheless, I hope the combination of interviews, background music, and readings tells the story engagingly. It’s hard not to be moved by the vegetarian leaders who seem to be trying to gauge how much they can get away with before they fall foul of the regime. I’m indebted to the German speakers who helped me understand some of the sources. If you want to delve and can read German, Frizten looks fascinating. With respect to Hitler, I’ve read Rynn Berry’s “Hitler: Neither Vegetarian Nor Animal Lover”, and checked his sources, which are more robust about the 1930s. But when it comes to the 1940s, there is substantial eyewitness evidence. I think the best answer to folk who consider that Hitler’s diet, alone amongst murderous dictators, somehow relevant to animal ethics today is comedian Jamie Kilstein’s hilarious rant on the subject (YouTube). Végétalisme I had to skip over just how long the French have had a word for a vegan diet. All the English-language sources I’ve read take at face value Fred Rothwell, who credited the word to the physician Jules Lefèvre in his introduction to his 1920 translation of Lefèvre’s extensive essay (c. 1904) on the vegetarian diet. But Rothwell seems to be wrong. Lefèvre was one of the “rationalist” vegetarians, who thought that meat was toxic, a gateway drug to worse things like alcohol and tobacco, and even likely to inflame disorderly conduct like going on strike (for these rationalist vegetarians tended to be conservatives). The word “Végétalisme”, however, was reportedly in the 1890 edition of the venerable French dictionary Larousse. There, it was defined the way Lefèvre used it (and the way it’s used today) – purely as a question of diet. But I haven’t been able to check Larousse 1890 directly, so I don’t know if it began as purely a dietary term (as it is now), or if it always had the political ascetic flavour associated with the anarchists. Credits Background advice came from Judith Baumgartner, Renate Brucker, and James Gregory, as well as some archive material from the Ernest Bell Archive. French translations were by Elisabeth Lyman; German by Annelie S & Anami N. I recorded the health food shop scenes in The Grocery, London. The theme music is by Robb Masters; “Nature Boy” is written by Eden Ahbe and performed CC-BY Jennifer Orna. The incidental music was John Philip Sousa’s Gladiator March performed by the US Air Force band, Scott Joplin’s Maple Leaf Rag performed CC-BY Stefano Ligoratti, “Russian Easter Festival Overture” by Rimsky-Korsakov performed by the Musopen symphony orchestra, and Wagner’s Siegfried performed by the US Marine Band. The actors were Brian Roberts, Ian Russell, Guillaume Blanchard, Orna Klement, and – as Mohandas K Gandhi – Harish Bhimani. The cover picture is a public domain photograph of Mohandas K Gandhi. This episode was originally broadcast on Resonance FM May 2nd 2017. Bibliography 1630116 MNDI89IP items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Crossley, Ceri. 2005. Consumable Metaphors: Attitudes towards Animals and Vegetarianism in Nineteenth-Century France. New York; Oxford: Peter Lang. Ehrenberger, Kristen, Peter A Fritzsche, Mark S Micale, Leslie J Reagan, and Tamara Chaplin. 2014. The Politics of the Table: Nutrition and the Telescopic Body in Saxon Germany, 1890-1935. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/49722. Fritzen, Florentine. 2006. Gesünder leben: die Lebensreformbewegung im 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurter historische Abhandlungen, Bd. 45. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner. Heyll, U. 2007. “Der „Kampf ums Eiweißminimum”.” DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 132 (51/52): 2768–73. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1012767. Redlich, Fredrick C. 2000. Hitler: Diagnosis of a Destructive Prophet. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Shprintzen, Adam D. 2015. The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Speer, Albert. 1970. Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs / Erinnerungen. Translated by Richard Winston and Clara Winston. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Thoms, Ulrike. 2010. “Vegetarianism, Meat and Life Reform in Early Twentieth-Century Germany and Their Fate in the ‘Third Reich.’” In Meat, Medicine, and Human Health in the Twentieth Century, edited by David Cantor, Christian Bonah, and Matthias Dörries, 145–58. London: Pickering & Chatto. Twigg, Julia. 2001. “The Vegetarian Movement in England, 1847-1981: With Particular Reference to Its Ideology.” http://www.ivu.org/history/thesis/. The post VegHist Ep 14: Diet Reform. On consumerism, lebensreform, and Gandhi; with Ramachandra Guha; at Sabarmati Ashram, India first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
41 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 13: The Vegetarians. Abolitionism, colonialism, and Victorian reformers; with Julia Twigg and Bhaskar Chakraborty. In London
In the late nineteenth century, the new vegetarian movement is intertwined with other struggles – including Victorian reformers, the Indian reaction to British colonialism, and most importantly, slavery. Episode 13: The Vegetarians After their foundation in 1847 and 1850, the vegetarian societies in Britain and America rose swiftly faced new challenges. Dr Adam Shprintzen, author of the history of US vegetarianism “Vegetarian Crusade, tells Ian how the American Vegetarian Society poured its energies into an anti-slavery vegetarian settlement in the Wild West. And how its founder, Englishman Henry Clubb, ultimately took a bullet for the union in the Civil War. Under British rule, Hindu vegetarianism faced a mix of threat and opportunity. In India, Ian meets historians DN Jha, Burton Cleetus, and Bhaskar Chakraborty, who explain how, faced with rule by distant Christians, vegetarianism became more important as a marker of caste and identity. Ian also sets off on a cycle tour of vegetarian Victorian London, and talks to the first modern academic to study vegetarian history – Dr Julia Twigg. Play or download (58MB MP3 41min) (via iTunes) or read transcript Contributors: Dr Adam Shprintzen, (Marywood University, Scranton PA) (@VegHistory) Prof Dwijendra Narayan Jha (Wikipedia) Prof Bhaskar Chakraborty (Department of History, University of Calcutta) Dr Burton Cleetus (Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi) Dr Vincent Goossaert (Groupe Sociétés, Religions, Laïcités), Paris Dr Julia Twigg (University of Kent) Dr Samantha Calvert (@SamCalvert) Readings Mary Gove Nichols “On the Education of Women”, in “The Herald of Health” 1881 “A Woman’s Work in Water Cure and Sanitary Education”, 1874 Bill of Fare, The “Alpha”, 1889 The Liberator, announcing the American Vegetarian Society annual meeting, Aug 5 1853 “Not wanted in Kansas”, Chicago Daily Tribune, Feb 12 1856 p2 Henry Clubb Excerpt from his unfinished history of vegetarianism, printed in the “Hygenic Review”, possibly 1893 Letter in the “Kansas Herald of Freedom Newspaper”, May 3 1856 Letter to his wife, from Shprintzen p89 “The Truth Tester”, 1856, via Cubesville* Meat-eating Doggerel by poet Narmad, recorded by Mohandas Hindu Tract Society, after 1887, from Barua, citing GA Oddie Account of a Christian convert by Howard Taylor, in “The Story of the China Inland Mission” by Geraldine Guinness, 1894 Anna Kingsford quoted on why she pursues medicine in Edward Maitland’s “Anna Kingsford, her life, letters, diary, and work” 3rd ed 1913 “A lecture on food”, 1882, in “Addresses and Essays on Vegetarianism”, by Kingsford & Maitland, 1912. Mohandas K Gandhi, “The Story of My Experiments with Truth, 1927 Henry Salt’s poem “The Sufficient Reason” in Vegetarian Messenger and Health Review, 1927 Annie Besant from “Vegetarianism in the Light of Theosophy”, 1912 *I couldn’t track down issues of the Truth Tester published that late, so I do wonder if it’s possible that Richard Cubeville made a mistake over the name of the magazine; but he’s been delving into the Vegetarian Society archives and I haven’t. The 1840s and 1850s yielded a confusing array of vegetarian periodicals with the same few overlapping writers and even overlapping titles (“The Truth Tester, Temperance Advocate, and Healthian Journal” being three journals merged together, for example) which doesn’t make citation easier. Production Diary The London cycle tour setup This is the rig I used for the cycle tour around London. If the white object poking out of the basket looks a lot like a cat scratching post, that’s because it is – it’s the only appropriately sized object in the flat with a thread that fitted my microphone mount. Mazzy has multiple scratching posts, so she wasn’t deprived. From left to right, the microphones are: covered by a grey fuzz windshield, the portable audio recorder. This was to pick up ambient noise, and was held in place by string and elastic to hopefully not be shake too much. (This only partially worked: I couldn’t use most tape of me cycling because of the noise). a lapel mic, so that you can hear what I say whilst cycling an SM58 mic, so that I can talk to others and get better sound quality myself when stationary Credits The theme music is by Robb Masters. Actuality of West Ham United Supporters CC-BY Hooger WS; and Civil War songs sung by the US Army Band (and hence public domain). The cover picture is a picture of a set of vegetarian magazines from around the world taken from “Fifty Years of Food Reform”. Featuring Harish Bhimani as Mohandas K Gandhi. Other parts were played by Chetan Pathak, Matthew Arenson, Ian Russell, Amy Saul, and Orna Klement. The montage of international vegetarian society foundings also included Jordi Casamitjana, Yuna Sparkle, and Adam Cardilini of VeganSci podcast. This episode was originally broadcast on Resonance 104.4FM on April 4th. Because I had a hoarse voice at the time, I have re-recorded my narration. This is also a fixed re-post, after it was originally posted with a link to episode 9 (HT Russ Wesp). Bibliography 1630116 IQDACQ4F items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Adcock, C. S. 2010. “Sacred Cows and Secular History: Cow Protection Debates in Colonial North India.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 30 (2): 297–311. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/393920. Barua, A. 2015. Debating “Conversion” in Hinduism and Christianity. Routledge Hindu Studies Series. Taylor & Francis. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=0ZisBwAAQBAJ. Bloch, Esther, Marianne Keppens, and Rajaram Hegde. 2009. Rethinking Religion in India: The Colonial Construction of Hinduism. Routledge. Calvert, Samantha Jane. 2013. “Eden’s Diet: Christianity and Vegetarianism 1809-2009.” Birmingham: University of Birmingham. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4575/. Cubesville, Richard. 2016. The Victorian Vegan. Manchester: Cubesville. Eric Reinders. 2004. “Blessed Are the Meat-Eaters.” In Borrowed Gods and Foreign Bodies : Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion, 146–69. Berkeley : University of California Press. Evans, Brett. 2013. “McJimsey Award Winner: Ideologies of the Shri Meenakshi Goushala: Hindu and Jain Motivations for a Madurai Cow Home.” ASIANetwork Exchange: A Journal for Asian Studies in the Liberal Arts 20 (2). http://www.asianetworkexchange.org/index.php/ane/article/view/95. Forward, Charles W. 1898. Fifty Years of Food Reform: A History of the Vegetarian Movement in England. London: Ideal Pub. Union. http://wellcomelibrary.org/item/b2486609x. Goossaert, Vincent. 2006. “1898: The Beginning of the End for Chinese Religion?” The Journal of Asian Studies 65 (02): 307–35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021911806000672. Gregory, James. 2014. “Vegetarianism as an International Movement, c.1840–1915.” http://www.academia.edu/4120418/Vegetarianism_as_an_international_movement_c.1840_1915. Guha, Ramachandra. 2013. Gandhi before India. Jha, D. N. 2002. The Myth of the Holy Cow. London; New York: Verso. Lodrick, Deryck O. 1981. Sacred Cows, Sacred Places: Origins and Survivals of Animal Homes in India. Berkeley: University of California Press. Reinders, Eric Robert. 2004. Borrowed Gods and Foreign Bodies: Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press. Shprintzen, Adam D. 2015. The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Silver-Isenstadt, Jean L. 2002. Shameless: The Visionary Life of Mary Gove Nichols. Twigg, Julia. 2001. “The Vegetarian Movement in England, 1847-1981: With Particular Reference to Its Ideology.” http://www.ivu.org/history/thesis/. The post VegHist Ep 13: The Vegetarians. Abolitionism, colonialism, and Victorian reformers; with Julia Twigg and Bhaskar Chakraborty. In London first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
47 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 12: Radicals & Romantics. Bible Christians, Grahamites, and Transcendentalists; with Adam Shprintzen and Derek Antrobus; at Deerfields, Fruitlands, and Salford
In the 1800s, overlapping circles of utopians, mystics, and romantics in both Europe and America develop arguments against meat until “vegetarianism” finally becomes a real movement. Episode 12: Radicals & Romantics In the aftermath of the American and French revolutions, the sects and philosophies that embrace a “vegetable diet” multiply – from ecstatic cult to puritan crusades, to utopian community to public-spirited congregation. No longer are they isolated groups – they connect with each other in books, magazines, and letters. Until a single word catches on – “vegetarianism”. In the United States of America, Ian discovers the the vegetarian sword and shoes of a 1790s “free love” vegetarian sect in a local Massachusetts museum, and visits the failed vegan commune where Louisa May “Little Women” Alcott lived as a child. And in Salford, NW England, he walks in the footsteps of a nineteenth century vegetarian church, with local historian Derek Antrobus and the vegetarian history specialist Dr Samantha Calvert. It’s a story that also takes in the French bohemian “cult of the bearded men”, the man who invented the modern idea of Robin Hood, the woman who invented Frankenstein and his creature, Sylvester Graham, and, finally, the creation of modern vegetarianism. Play or download (65MB MP3 47min) (via iTunes) or read transcript Contributors: Timothy Neumann (Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association & its Memorial Hall with 1790s veggie shoes), Massachusetts USA Pierre Serna (French Revolution Institute at Panthéon-Sorbonne Paris) (Modern & Contemporary History Institute, ENS) Dr Samantha Calvert (@SamCalvert) Cllr Derek Antrobus (Salford Council [local government]) (@CllrAntrobus) See his Radical Manchester interview, History Today article & book A Guiltless Feast, all on Salford’s role in vegetarian history Dr Mike Volmar (Fruitlands, Massachusetts USA) (@Fruitlands) Dr Adam Shprintzen, (Marywood University, Scranton PA) (@VegHistory) Readings Charles Nodier, on Les Bardus, letter to Charles Weiss, Alphonse Lamartine, on Jean-Antoine Gleizes, in 1846 Joseph Ritson, An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food as a Moral Duty, 1802 Dr John Lambe, Water and Vegetable Diet in Consumption, Scrofula, Cancer, Asthma, and Other Chronic Diseases, 1815 Percy Bysshe Shelley, Queen Mab, 1818 Mary Shelley, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, 1818 further discussion of Mary Shelley’s work Anon (but probably Shelley’s friend Peacock), The Medical Advisor, and Guide to Health and Long Life, “Dinner by the Amateurs of Vegetable Diet“, 1824 Emmanuel Swedenborg, Divine Love and Wisdom, 1763 (with tweaked translation) Sylvester Graham, Lecture on Epidemic Diseases Generally, and Particularly the Spasmodic Cholera, delivered 1832-3, published 1838 Asenith Nicholson Advert in Graham Journal of Health and Longevity, 1838 Boarding House Rules in Nature’s Own Book, 1835 (1st edn 1832) Prof William Tyler (Amherst College), on his stay in a Grahamite boarding house, 1833 William Alcott, Boston Surgical & Medical Journal (now the New England Journal of Medicine), 1836 Martha Brotherton, advert for Bible Christian cookbook “Vegetable Cookery”, in The Manchester Guardian, 1821 Joseph Brotherton introduction to “Vegetable Cookery”, 1833 edition speech on Corn Laws, 1842 (transposed by me from Hansard back into the first person) speech recorded in Vegetarian Messenger, 1847 (transposed by me back into the first person) Louisa May Alcott, diary, 1843 published as part of “Louisa May Alcott, her Life, Letters, and Journals” 1898 Geek Reference of the Month The debates amongst a medical profession stumbling towards usefulness are a big part of this episode, and although the Victorian Dr William Lambe (and other “water cure” fans) were wrong to think distilled water can heal, the converse is true. Polluted water can be very harmful indeed. Dr John Snow is widely known as the man who identified sewage-contaminated water as the cause of the 1854 London cholera epidemic, and removed the handle of the water pump to halt it; and as the father of epidemiology who mapped cholera cases to show this. But he was also a follower of Dr William Lambe and spent many years of his life on a vegan diet. It would have taken too long to describe all that in the show. But I wonder (and it should be possible to check) what part his belief in the importance of pure distilled water played in forming the idea that polluted water could transmit epidemic disease. Production Diary Back when this series was just an idea, the Messy Vegetarian Cook, Kip Dorrell, mentioned to me at London Vegan Meetup that she had a distant relative who ran some kind of American vegetarian sect long ago. Little did I know I’d end up photographing his shoes next to mine. It was a stroke of luck that my life took me to New England in 2015 – I hadn’t originally planned to visit anywhere in America for the series. We did try to find the hill where the Dorrelites once lived, and though we ran out of road, we ran into a woman who lived there and knew that it had once held some kind of vegetarian cult. The locals really do still tell stories about William Dorrell. We also spent half an hour looking for the grave in what’s meant to be his cemetery, but didn’t find it. It’s said to be marked “Soldier of the Revolution” – artfully eliding which side he fought on! As you can tell from the recording, it was very rainy in Salford; my next fundraising goal might include a mic with a proper windshield. Credits The curators of the two American sites we visited this episode, Timothy Neumann and Mike Volmar, gave me enormous help with the primary sources on these characters. Photographs of them are by Heidi White, who also drove me up and down Vermont and Massachusetts on the trail of vegetarian history. The theme music is by Robb Masters. The actors were Jeremy Hancock, Guillaume Blanchard, Amy Saul, Matthew Arenson, Orna Klement, and Ian Russell. The Romantic period music was by Ludvig van Beethoven – for the Bracknell Circle, his “Pastoral” Sonata No. 15 performed by Paul Pitman (PD), and for Shelley’s circle, his Piano Concerto no. 3 performed by Stefano Ligoratti (CC-BY). The Bible Christian vegetarian hymns were very kindly performed by The Choir of St. Mary’s Nottingham, directed by John Keys. The cover picture is from Asenath Nicholson’s “Nature’s Own Book”, 1848 edition. Originally broadcast on Resonance 104.4 FM March 7th 2017, with a very hoarse narration. I re-recorded once my voice had recovered. Bibliography 1630116 555IKRG2 items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Antrobus, Derek. 1997. A Guiltless Feast: The Salford Bible Christian Church and the Rise of the Modern Vegetarian Movement. Salford: City of Salford, Education and Leisure. Calvert, Samantha Jane. 2013. “Eden’s Diet: Christianity and Vegetarianism 1809-2009.” Birmingham: University of Birmingham. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4575/. Harland, William Harry, Charles Lane, and Joel Myerson. 1978. William Harry Harland’s “Bronson Alcott’s English Friends.” Richmond, Va.: Dept. of English, Virginia Commonwealth University. Levitine, George. 1978. The Dawn of Bohemianism: The Barbu Rebellion and Primitivism in Neoclassical France. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. Marini, Stephen A. 1982. Radical Sects of Revolutionary New England. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church (Philadelphia, Pa.), and Maintenance Committee. 1922. History of the Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church for the First Century of Its Existence from 1817 to 1917. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Francis M Thompson. 1898. “The Dorrellites.” In History and Proceedings of Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Assoc., 2 (1880-1889):82–89. Deerfield, Mass.: Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association. https://archive.org/stream/historyproceedin2188pocu#page/n165/mode/2up. Preece, Rod. 2014. Sins of the Flesh: A History of Vegetarian Thought. Vancouver: UBC Press. Serna, Pierre. 2010. “Droits d’humanité, droits d’animalité à la fin du 18e siècle, ou la matrice du « racisme social » en controverse.” Dix-huitième siècle 42 (1): 247. https://doi.org/10.3917/dhs.042.0247. Shprintzen, Adam D. 2015. The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Twigg, Julia. 2001. “The Vegetarian Movement in England, 1847-1981: With Particular Reference to Its Ideology.” http://www.ivu.org/history/thesis/. The post VegHist Ep 12: Radicals & Romantics. Bible Christians, Grahamites, and Transcendentalists; with Adam Shprintzen and Derek Antrobus; at Deerfields, Fruitlands, and Salford first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
43 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 11: Enlightenment. Colonial India, Voltaire, Rousseau, and the French Revolution; with Partha Chatterjee, Christophe Martin, and Renan Larue; at the Black Hole of Calcutta, and Musée Rousseau Montmerency
The philosophers of Paris discuss reports of Indian vegetarianism, question the morality of eating animals, and inspire radicals who preach vegetarianism from the barricades of the French revolution. Episode 11: Enlightenment Ian traces a winding path of vegetarian inspiration from the personal diary of an Indian vegetarian working for the French, to the darkest corner of British imperial propaganda, to the Enlightenment’s favourite Paris café, to a rural retreat that inspired a social revolution, and to the squares where citizens plotted a real one. Play or download (61MB MP3 43min) (via iTunes) or read transcript There are many vegetarians in eighteenth century southern India, but only one, Ananda Ranga Pillai, who kept a diary of his daily life – whilst serving as a senior aide to the French governor. Ian meets historian Prof B. Krishnamoorthy in a temple Pillai had built in the French capital. Meanwhile, the British produced a governor of Calcutta – John Zephaniah Holwell – whose fascination for Indian culture crosses into Hindu vegetarianism. Ian meets Prof Partha Chatterjee, an expert in the incident – the Black Hole of Calcutta – that made Holwell famous. Paris was the heart of the enlightenment, where the Lumières condemn organised religion and discuss the nature of humanity over coffee. Holwell and other writers out of India inspire the leading figure of the French Enlightenment, Voltaire, to criticise Christian attitudes to eating animals, and Ian meets vegan Voltaire expert Renan La Rue in the Lumières’ favourite haunt, Café Procope. Then Ian and Renan visit the hillside home of Voltaire’s sentimental rival Rousseau, who suggested that children should be raised without the corruption of meat-eating, along with Prof Christophe Martin of the Sorbonne. The ideas are revolutionary; but it takes the radicals of the revolution to put them into practice. Ian visits Prof Pierre Serna at the Sorbonne, and travels to the heart of the French Revolution with Matthieu Ferradou to discover the vegetarian Scotsman who led the French revolutionaries in battle, and the Pythagorean aristocrat who dressed like an ancient Greek and was rumoured to have made possible the storming of the Bastille and the beginning of the revolution. It’s a chain that links the conservative vegetarianism of southern India to the heart of European radical politics. Contributors: Partha Chatterjee (Columbia University New York) B. Krishnamurthy (Pondicherry University) Tristram Stuart (tristramstuart.co.uk) (on Wikipedia) (@TristramStuart on Twitter) Renan Larue (UC Santa Barbara) (Regardez il parlent sur l’histoire végétarien en Français) Christophe Martin (Paris Sorbonne) Pauline Prévot (of Musée Jean Jacques Rousseau Montmorency) Pierre Serna (French Revolution Institute at Panthéon-Sorbonne Paris) (Modern & Contemporary History Institute, ENS) Matthieu Ferradou (Modern & Contemporary History Institute, ENS) Readings Ananda Ranga Pillai, Diary vol V p334-5 vol VI p265 (Nov 16 1749) vol VIII p296 (Apr 4 1753) Voltaire, “Essays on the Encylopedia: Meat”, 1770-4 Rousseau Emile, 1762 Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Men, 1754 Bernardin St. Pierre Paul et Virginie, 1788 Letter to Brissot, see Stuart p 317 John Oswald The Cry of Nature, 1794 Review of the Constitution of Great Britain, 1792 (see Stuart p 301) Marquis de Valadi Letter to Thomas Taylor, about Piggot, 1788 Letter to Samuel Breck, on the revolution, 1788 Letter to aunt, 1794, taken from Stuart p. 330 Geek Reference of the Month The “Black Hole of Calcutta” we visit this episode is almost certainly the namesake of the cosmological phenomenon. Credits The theme music is by Robb Masters. With the voices of Guillaume Blanchard, Brian Roberts, and Selva Rasalingham. My thanks to Vincent Migeotte, who acted as my volunteer fixer in Paris – in particular setting up location interviews at Café Procope and the Musée Rousseau; and to Elisabeth Lyman for translation and swapping flats. The featured image is “Banyan tree with Hindu temples at Agori, Bihar” by Thomas Daniell, 1796, CC-BY Wellcome Trust – an early colonial vision of Indian religion to match the information about Indian religion that sets the episode in progress. This episode is kindly sponsored by Kickstarter backer Martin Taylor Costumes, which specialises in vegan costumes, particularly ones for the eighteenth century, the period of this episode. Bibliography 1630116 6NBUFVU2 items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Anantarankam Pillai, 1709-1761, and Henry Dodwell. 1900. The Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai. Madras : Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press. http://archive.org/details/diaryofanandaran05anan. Armand, Colin, ed. 2014. L’animal en révolution. Annales historiques de la Révolution française. Paris: Armand Colin : Société des études robespierristes. http://www.cairn.info/revue-annales-historiques-de-la-revolution-francaise-2014-3.htm. Chatterjee, Partha. 2012. The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10542758. Chevallier, Jim. 2009. Vegetarians in Old Regime France. https://www.academia.edu/232131/Vegetarians_in_18th_Century_France. Davis, Michael, Iain McCalman, and Christina Parolin. 2005. Newgate in Revolution: An Anthology of Radical Prison Literature in the Age of Revolution. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1644300. Erdman, David V. 1981. “The Man Who Was Not Napoleon.” Vol. XII, No. 1, Winter 1981. Gibson, Edgar C. S. (Edgar Charles Sumner). 1901. John Howard. London : Methuen. http://archive.org/details/johnhoward00gibsuoft. Guerrini, Anita. 1999. “A Diet for a Sensitive Soul: Vegetarianism in Eighteenth-Century Britain.” Eighteenth-Century Life 23 (2): 34–42. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/10487. Larue, Renan. 2010. “Le végétarisme dans l’œuvre de Voltaire (1762-1778).” Dix-huitième siècle 42 (1): 19. https://doi.org/10.3917/dhs.042.0019. Larue, Renan. 2014. Le végétarisme et ses ennemis: vingt-cinq siècles de débats. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. Marshall, P. J. 2000. “The White Town of Calcutta under the Rule of the East India Company.” Modern Asian Studies 34 (2): 307–31. http://www.jstor.org/stable/313065. Parker, Reeve. 1988. “‘In Some Sort Seeing with My Proper Eyes’: Wordsworth and the Spectacles of Paris.” Studies in Romanticism 27 (3): 369–90. https://doi.org/10.2307/25600725. Stuart, Tristram. 2007. The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. “Valadi.” 1797. In Biographical Anecdotes of the Founders of the French Republic, and of Other Eminent Characters, Who Have Distinguished Themselves in the Progress of the Revolution., 150. London: Printed for R. Phillips, and sold by Mr. Johnson, and Mr. Debrett. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/8295437.html. The post VegHist Ep 11: Enlightenment. Colonial India, Voltaire, Rousseau, and the French Revolution; with Partha Chatterjee, Christophe Martin, and Renan Larue; at the Black Hole of Calcutta, and Musée Rousseau Montmerency first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
44 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 10: Revolution. English civil war, diet gurus, and the poetry of Sensibility; with Tristram Stuart and Anita Guerrini; at the Ahmedabad Panjrapole
When printing lets ordinary people access a world of ideas, including Indian vegetarianism, some European radicals and diet gurus begin to oppose meat-eating. Episode 10: Revolution In England, the 1600s are a century of revolution. The artisans and yeomanry are picking up books – and the New Model Army is picking up pikes and muskets to turn the world upside down. Ian meets Dr Ariel Hessayon, a lecturer in the radicals of the English Civil War at a Thameside pub that was there during the 1600s, to discover tabloid scares and firebrand sermons about people who ate only bread, and water and fruit. In Ahmedabad, India, he visits the kind of animal hospital that astounded European travellers. And he hears from author Tristram Stuart about the impact stories of India had on Europeans, and how they shook Christendom’s moral certainty. Dr Anita Guerrini researches the first vegetarian diet gurus, whose books about food and medicine interpreted the intellectuals of the Republic of Letters for everyone else. And she tells Ian about the secret religion of Sir Isaac Newton. Play or download (62MB MP3 44min) (via iTunes) or read transcript Contributors: Sherwin Everett and Giraben Shah (Jivdaya Charitable Trust, within Panjrapole Ahmedabad) Ariel Hessayon, Goldsmiths, University of London (@ArielHessayon1 on Twitter) Anita Guerrini, Oregon State University (@NickyTheProf on Twitter) Tristram Stuart (tristramstuart.co.uk) (on Wikipedia) (@TristramStuart on Twitter) Readings Traveller Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, “Voyage .. to the East Indies”, 1595, translation by Burnell 1598 Thomas Bushell on his diet, quoted in Stuart p 8 Richard Baxter, “The Poor Husbandman’s Advocate to Rich Racking Landlords”, 1691 (published as “The Last Treatise of Rev Richard Baxter” in 1926 [PDF]) Thomas Edwards, “Gangraeana”, 1646 John Reeve, “A Transcendental Spiritual Treatise”, 1711 (1st ed 1652) Lodowick Muggleton, “The Acts of the Witnesses of the Spirit”, 1699 Anon & Roger Crab, “The English Hermit”, 1655 John Evelyn, “Acetaria”, 1699 Thomas Tryon “A dialogue between an East-Indian brackmanny or heathen-philosopher, and a French gentleman concerning the present affairs of Europe”, 1683 “Transcript of several letters from Averroes – also several letters from Pythagoras to the King of India”, 1695 Anonymous, “Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy”, Vol 4 & 7, 1691-4 (following Giovanni Paolo Marana tr William Bradshaw, “Letters Writ By a Turkish Spy”, Vol 1 1687) Isaac Newton, “Irenicum”, some point within 1711-1727 Bernard de Mandeville, “Fable of the Bees”, 1723 Alexander Pope, “The Essay on Man”, 1733/4 George Cheyne “The Case of the Author” in “The English Malady”, 1733 “An Essay on Regimen”, 1740 John Wesley letter to Bishop of London, 1747 Sermon 60, as published in 1872 Production Notes This is really where the story breaks open in the west and a “Pythagorean” diet re-enters the popular consciousness for the first time since antiquity. Frustratingly, I had to leave out a lot, such as how Thomas Tryon follows the mystic Jakob Boehme (quite a lot of early vegetarians are mystics) . In particular, George Cheyne has a very specific theory of how the nervous system works, based on the physical laws of Newton. But I can’t go into detail on all the theories that have fallen and risen as “natural history” stumbles towards a useful understanding of the body. The monument to Roger Crab is still in St. Dunstan’s, Stepney, London, though unfortunately I haven’t been able to locate it. As I live near there, it would be nice to pay our vegan predecessor some respects. The broadcast of this episode was on 6 Dec 2016. The podcast release was severely delayed. Rather than date this page with the broadcast date (as usual) I’m dating it to the January broadcast slot that was superseded by Resonance FM’s holiday schedules. Content (whether books, journal articles, or programmes) tends to be identified by its publication year, and so I thought it particularly important that that stays accurate. Credits The theme music is by Robb Masters. The period music was Greensleeves performed by Paul Arden-Taylor and Carol Holt (PD); slow reels (dances) “Long Acre” and “Kerry Fling” performed by the “Peak Fiddler”; Papalin’s performance on recorders of Henry Purcell’s Sonata in D Major (CC-BY) to again evoke turn-of-the-century London, and Telemann’s performance of Händel’s recorder Sonata. With the voices of Jeremy Hancock, Ian Russell, and Brian Roberts. Nimi Hirani gave me enormous help and assistance in Ahmedabad, and in India in general. The cover picture (by me) is some of the books in the readings: “Acetaria” (Evelyn) , “The English Hermit” (Crab), a pamphlet attacking Crab, and “Guide to Health, Long Life and Happiness” by George Cheyne. Bibliography 1630116 B8MIXFTF items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Ariel Hessayon. 2004. “Crab, Roger (c. 1616-1680), Hermit.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Guerrini, Anita. 1999. “A Diet for a Sensitive Soul: Vegetarianism in Eighteenth-Century Britain.” Eighteenth-Century Life 23 (2): 34–42. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/10487. Hill, Christopher. 1964. Puritanism and Revolution: Studies in Interpretation of the English Revolution of the 17th Century. New York: Schocken Books. Hill, Christopher. 1972. The World Turned Upside down; Radical Ideas during the English Revolution. New York: Viking Press. Larue, Renan. 2009. “Les bienfaits controversés du régime maigre le Traité des dispenses du carême de Philippe Hecquet et sa réception (1709-1714).” Dix-huitième siècle, no. 41 (September): 409–30. http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=DHS_041_0409. Lodrick, Deryck O. 1981. Sacred Cows, Sacred Places: Origins and Survivals of Animal Homes in India. Berkeley: University of California Press. Stuart, Tristram. 2007. The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. The post VegHist Ep 10: Revolution. English civil war, diet gurus, and the poetry of Sensibility; with Tristram Stuart and Anita Guerrini; at the Ahmedabad Panjrapole first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
44 minutes | 4 years ago
VegHist Ep 9: Renaissance. Descartes, Montaigne, Gassendi, and the “sparing diet”; with Jean-Charles Darmon, Deepak Kumar, and Justin Begley; in Paris, France
Ancient philosophers inspire Renaissance thinkers to challenge the old hierarchy of man over beast. Episode 9: Renaissance Old medieval certainties are cracking under the combined assault of new sciences and rediscovered classics. It’s an age when “natural philosophers” combine scientific discovery with philosophical treatises, and when their Republic of Letters transcends political boundaries in the name of free thought. It’s the age of Descartes, whose mechanical philosophy dismisses animals as “automatons”. But rivals like Gassendi suggest that animals have more in common with humans than he thinks. Ian traces the trail from Paris to the Mughal Court and back to the medical schools of the Enlightenment. He discovers the forgotten story of how Christian mythology, early anatomy, classical thinkers, and Indian medicine came together in respected medical schools that taught students to prescribe a vegetable diet. Play or download (61MB MP3 44min) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Justin Begley, University of Oxford (academia.edu) Jean-Charles Darmon (Université de Versailles) (on Wikipedia) Deepak Kumar (Jawaharlal Nehru University) Tristram Stuart (tristramstuart.co.uk) (on Wikipedia) Click to view slideshow. Readings Lucretius, “On the Nature of Things”, 56 BCE (see translations by Hugh Munro 1910 & Cyril Bailey 1900) Montaige, “Apology [in the old sense of “propounding”] for Raymond Sebond”, 1580 (see translation by Charles Cotton) Gassendi, Letter to Van Helmont, 1629 Descartes, Letter to Henry More, 1649 Descartes & Gassendi, Appendix to Meditations, 1642 Bernier, appendix to “Concerning Happiness”, 1674 (see translation) Bernier, “Travels in the Mogul Empire”, 1670 (see translation by Constable 1891 & Smith 1916) Philip Hecquet, “Traité des dispenses du Carême” (translation for by Elisabeth Lyman) John Wallis & Edward Tyson, 1700 (see below) Alexander Munro, “An Essay on Comparative Anatomy”, 1744 Herman Boerhaave & William Cullen taken from Stuart (see below) Descartes’ readings represent the course of his philosophy, but aren’t in chronological order in the show. Descartes first propounded his mechanistic ideas about animal “automatons” in his 1638 “Discourse on Method”, but articulated it more clearly for us in a letter from 1649. He didn’t touch on it in his First Meditations (1641), but Gassendi did raise it in his response. Geek Reference of the Month Just Lady Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle. And all the characters in the show who are leading scientists. Credits Background advice came from Renan LaRue and Antonia Lolo. Location photographs are by Vincent Migeotte, my production assistant in Paris. The theme music is by Robb Masters. The period music was Anna Simboli’s performance of ‘Signor, quell’infelice’ from L’Orfeo by Montiverdi (CC-BY); and, to evoke 1700 London, Papalin’s performance on recorders of Henry Purcell’s Sonata in C Major (CC-BY), which is dedicated to Lady Rhodia Cavendish. Archive monastery bells recorded by Robin Whittaker, Gregorian chant CC-BY Ramagochi, fast ticking recorded CC-BY Patrick Liberkind, and clockwork toy recorded CC-BY Steven Brown. The cover picture is The Garden of Eden, by Jan Brueghel. I’m very grateful to the actors of historical drama group Joot Theatre Company, at the University of Dundee – Connor Ogg (Monro), Iain Brodie (Cullen) and Vachel Novesha. Dr Jo George is their director of Joot Theatre Company, and was extremely helpful in helping set this up, and Brian Hoyle was their studio producer. Other parts were played by Sally Beaumont (Margaret Cavendish) and Guillaume Blanchard. Bibliography 1630116 VGRU9HKC items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Bramly, Serge. 1994. Leonardo: The Artist and the Man. London; New York: Penguin Books. Kundra, Sakul. 2010. “François Bernier’s Discourse on the Health System in Medieval India.” The National Medical Journal of India 23 (4): 236–39. Stuart, Tristram. 2007. The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Wallis, John. 1700. “A Letter of Dr Wallis to Dr Tyson, Concerning Mens Feeding on Flesh.” Philosophical Transactions 22 (260–276): 769–85. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1700.0070. The post VegHist Ep 9: Renaissance. Descartes, Montaigne, Gassendi, and the "sparing diet"; with Jean-Charles Darmon, Deepak Kumar, and Justin Begley; in Paris, France first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
37 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 8: Contacts. Indian Sufism, Bhakti, Akbar, Portuguese Christianity, and Gaudiya Vaishnavism; with Sanjukta Gupta; in Agra, Delhi, and London
When conquerors who profess Islam or Christianity rule over Indian vegetarians, the conversations about food ethics go both ways. Episode 8: Contacts Ian discovers the ecstatic dancing and singing shared by Sufis and Hindus – including westerners singing Hare Krishna in London’s main shopping street. In Delhi, he finds out about the inquisition that started with European antisemitism and ended with Indians being forced to eat beef. And in the royal city of Agra, he visits a shrine built to commemorate a conversation about religion and vegetarianism between a Jain saint and the Mughal emperor Akbar. He uncovers the fascinating story of this heretic emperor who advocated vegetarianism. At the halfway point of this 15-part history of vegetarianism, the traditions of East and West come together. From hereon, it’s all one story. Play or download (52MB MP3 37min) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Pius Malekandathil (Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi) Sushil Jain and Ashoka Jain, Agra Sanjukta Gupta (University of Oxford) Dr Peter Flügel, SOAS (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London) ISKON (“Hare Krishnas”): Devotees of Radha Krishna Temple, Soho, London Prasad distributed by Food For All Ter Kadamba das (askamonk.org) Readings Andrea Corsali, Letter to Giuliano de Medici 1515 Emperor Jahangir, Memoirs (Translated by Alexander Rogers, 1914) Kabir, in the Guru Granth, translation assisted by Manvir Singh. Abu Fazl Allami’s Akbarnama, on the sayings of Akbar (see translation by Gladwin 1800) and on the Hall of Worship (from Rezavi and Blochman) Palatina Inscription Akbar’s Farmans (from Malcom’s Memoir of Central India 1832, Jhaveri, and the Bhanuchandra Gani courtesy of the Digital Library of India) Letter of Father Pinheiro, from Vincent Smith’s “Akbar the Great Mogul” 1917 Matteo Ricci, from “The Truth Meaning of the Lordof Heaven”. Francis Bacon, “The Partitions of Science”, discussing Proverbs Ch XII v10 (“A right-minded person cares for his beast”). The Italian and Portuguese sources used the word “gentoo” (related to “gentile”, but from the perspective of Christians). Here I variously translated it as “Hindu” or “Infidel”, but I’m wishing I’d translated it as “pagan”. Special Bonus for Australian Listeners Andrea Corsali’s letter is famous for more than casually implying that Leonardo da Vinci was vegetarian. He was the first person to draw the constellation of the Southern Cross, which is part of the Australian flag. There is a copy of the letter (ironically on animal skin) in the State Library of New South Wales. Untranslated Vegetarian History I tried to find readings from some of the Sufis mentioned early in the show. But their words do not seem to be published in the vernacular, let alone in translation. So again, I’ll leave these footnotes here in the hope that scholarly specialists will one day come across them! Hamid ud-Din Nagori’s commitment to animals is mentioned on p221 of Sururu’s Sudur, which is in the Habibganj collection at Aligarh University. Nuru’d-Din’s admission that he considered meat-eating cruelty despite it being allowed under Shari’a is in the Asraru’l-Abrar (“The Secrets of the Pious”) by Dawud Mishkati (ff. 236a-b), published 1654. I haven’t been able to find it anywhere. Kabir, Sikhs, and Vegetarianism There’s a well-worn debate about vegetarianism amongst Sikhs, including a seventeenth century account that the early Gurus (in the early sixteenth century) were vegetarian. There are arguments over whether particular verses condemn meat-eating, or just the ritual killings of Muslims and Hindus. Some of the strongest lines against eating animals seem to come from the poet Kabir. (He may have inspired the first Sikh guru, and the Sikh scriptures include his poetry.) But even Kabir’s rhetoric is open to interpretation; much of it seems directed at particular kinds of slaughter. It seems reasonable to assume he was vegetarian, but it’s not absolutely explicit (either in the poetry, or in my script). For example, there is one line of the Bījak quoted in Religious Vegetarianism from Hesiod to the Dalai Llama that seems to advocate vegetarianism, but I had no reasons to choose their translation of “You should not eat fishes or flesh over what grows in the fields” over the very different “You eat animals and fish as if they grew in the fields“. I’m grateful to Brianne Donaldson and Susan Brill for that discussion. The original Hindi text is online, should anyone wish to discuss the translation in the comments. The non-vegetarian interpretation of the Kabir lines in the show would be to claim that throat-cutting was about Islamic ritual slaughter, rather than killing in general. But Kabir obviously isn’t suggesting a different way of killing; he’s suggesting kichri. (“Kichri” is the name of the dish of rice and beans. Its seasoning of salt was described as “amrit”, literally “un-death”, which after talking to a helpful Sikh vegan I rendered as “bloodless salt”.) With time, I could have delved into Sikh vegetarianism more. As it happens, the oldest marathon runner in the world is a Sikh vegetarian who (like me) lives in East London. I didn’t go into detail in part because I couldn’t find a consistent strand that goes back to the sixteenth century; the movements towards vegetarianism within Sikhism are informed by its own sense of self-discipline, the conversation with the other religious traditions of India, and the basic principle of compassion. Emperor Jahangir Jahangir is Akbar’s son and successor. He kept lurking at the fringe of the story, barely doing enough to be properly featured. Most interestingly, there’s his complex relationship with Akbar. He ordered the murder of Akbar’s vizier (who described the Hall of Worship in this episode). His guilt over this might be a driver of his own dalliance with vegetarianism (see Findly). Which might be why he wrote so admiringly of the Rishis (also in the episode). He also ordered the death of the Sikh leader Guru Arjan, which pushed the Sikhs into becoming the martial religion we know today. Geek Reference of the Month “Ferengi” / “Farang” is the word for foreigner throughout Asia – not just in Hindi (and Tamil, which is what the Jesuit Roberto de Nobilis spoke with locals) – but in Persian and Thai and Chinese as well. It derives from “Franks”, which became the Arab name for Western Europeans back when Charlemagne’s Frankish empire was its main power. For most westerners, though, it was familiar for another reason. Writers chose the Asian word as the name of an acquisitive species in Star Trek who would rival the East India Companies for greed. Credits Archive Qawaali and Sikh Temple audio CC-BY Vintage Sense and Casa Asia, respectively. The theme music is by Robb Masters. The actors were Sandeep Garcha, Selva Rasalingham, and Jeremy Hancock. This episode is sponsored by Kickstarter backer Jaysee Costa. Bibliography A bar over a vowel (“ā”) lengthens it. I particularly recommend the chapter of Rizvi that deals with the interactions with Bakhtis – it’s on the Internet Archive. 1630116 X5UIHXD7 items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Ahmad, Imtiaz, and Helmut Reifeld, eds. 2004. Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict. New Delhi: Social Science Press. Bramly, Serge. 1994. Leonardo: The Artist and the Man. London; New York: Penguin Books. Findly, Ellison B. 1987. “Jahāngīr’s Vow of Non-Violence.” Jameroriesoci Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (2): 245–56. ʻAzīz Aḥmad. 1964. Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Jain, Shalin. 2012. “Interaction of the ‘Lords’: The Jain Community and the Mughal Royalty under Akbar.” Socialscientist Social Scientist 40 (3–4): 33–57. Jhaverī, Kr̥shṇalāla Mohanalāla. 1928. Imperial Farmans, A.D. 1577 to A.D. 1805, Granted to the Ancestors of His Holiness the Tikayat Maharaj. India: publisher not identified. Malcolm, John. 1824. A Memoir of Central India 2. 2. London. O’Hanlon, Rosalind, D. A Washbrook, and St. Antony’s College (University of Oxford), eds. 2011. Religious Cultures in Early Modern India: New Perspectives. New Delhi: Routledge. Rezavi, S. A. N. 2008. “Religious Disputations and Imperial Ideology: The Purpose and Location of Akbar’s Ibadatkhana.” Studies in History 24 (2): 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/025764300902400203. Rizvi, Saiyid Athar Abbas. 1978. A History of Sufism in India. Vol. 1. 2 vols. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. https://archive.org/stream/AHistoryOfSufismInIndiaVol.OneSaiyidAtharAbbasRizvi/. Saraiva, António José, and H. P. Salomon. 2001. The Marrano Factory: The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians 1536 - 1765. Leiden: Brill. 1 Truschke, Audrey Angeline. 2012. “Cosmopolitan Encounters: Sanskrit and Persian at the Mughal Court.” http://academiccommons.columbia.edu/item/ac:145903. The post VegHist Ep 8: Contacts. Indian Sufism, Bhakti, Akbar, Portuguese Christianity, and Gaudiya Vaishnavism; with Sanjukta Gupta; in Agra, Delhi, and London first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
48 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 7: Heresies. On Chinese Buddhists, Cathars, Bogomils, Islam, and Manichaeans; with Vincent Gooseart, John Arnold, Jason BeDuhn, and Ven. Chueh Yun; at the Fo Guang Shan Buddhist Temple, in London
In the Middle Ages, three very different monastic orders spread from the Mediterranean to the South China Sea, surrounding themselves with lay believers and challenging the norm of meat-eating. Episode 7: Heresies A string of religious groups across medieval Eurasia shared one common belief: that this world was a terrible place; and to escape its cycle of rebirth and redeath you needed to be ordained into a pure life, abstaining from violence. They all have some level of abstention from flesh, up to and including a vegan diet. But they all face suspicion. Discover why the “good men” of the Cathars and Bogomils eschewed sinful flesh, why the men and women of the Manichaean Elect followed a vegan diet, and how the monks and nuns of Buddhism were shamed by their layfolk. And how a vegetarian culture spread throughout east Asia. Ian joins a Chinese Buddhist congregation in London for its full moon service. He discovers how Buddhism not only spread across China, but made vegetarianism part of Chinese culture. He discovers a war against pescetarian heretics in Europe, the medieval Chinese horror stories that encouraged kindness to animals, and visits his local Tofu maker. Play or download (67MB MP3 48min) (via iTunes) Contributors: Chueh Yun, Fo Guang Shan Temple (Wikipedia) (@LondonFGS on twitter), London Prof John Arnold (Birkbeck, University of London) Dr Vincent Goossaert (Groupe Sociétés, Religions, Laïcités), Paris Jason BeDuhn (Wikipedia) (Northern Arizona University), Flagstaff Prof Richard Gombrich (Wikipedia) (University of Oxford) Dr Deepak Anand (blogger.com) (Buddhist University of Nalanda) Neil McLennan (Clean Bean Tofu), London Readings Miracle Tale of Zhizong, from MS Fayuan zhulin 64.722b (see Camapany, 2012) Liang of Wu, pronouncement around 522 CE (see De Rauw & Heirman, 2011) Khan Bügü’s pronouncement (see Papaconstantinou, 2015) The Story of ‘Amir ibn ‘Abd Qays (see Tạbarī, 1990) The case of the animals versus man before the King of the Jinn, from The Epistles of the Brethren of Purity (see translation by McGregor and Goodman, 2012) Frs Cosmas & Zigabenus on the Bogomils (see Hamilton and Hamilton, 1998) Anselms’ letter on the over-zealous persecution (see Wakefield & Evans, 1991) The report of the Cathar women from the Le registre d’inquisition (see Fournier 1978) And for the report of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, see (of course) Baṭṭūṭa 1953 Hear previous shows about a medieval Syrian vegan poet and Chinese mock meat This episode returns to themes that previous shows have explored in depth. Rebel Poet: Benjamin Zephaniah discusses the life of Abul ʿala Al-Maʿarri (أبو العلاء المعري), the medieval Arab vegan philosopher poet A thousand years ago, Al-Ma’arri was writing Arabic poems of extreme complexity, promoting a rational ideal and most remarkably, making an ethical case for veganism. We tell the story of his life in conversation with fellow vegan rebel poet Benjamin Zephaniah. South East Asia: Finding Vegan Food in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Cambodia This show compiles some of my first experiments in vegan podcasting, whilst travelling through Southeast Asia in 2009. It includes my experiences of the many vegan ethnic Chinese restaurants. It was also the first time I met Peter Flugel, an expert in Jainism featured in previous (and forthcoming) episodes of #VegHist. Unanswered Questions There were some questions I did not manage to get to the bottom of. I leave them here, in the hope that scholarly specialists will one day come across them! Middle East: Were any Qarmatians Vegetarian? The Qarmatians were a religious and political rival to Islam in the ninth and tenth centuries. They controlled eastern Arabia, the gulf archipelago of Bahrain, and (at points) southern Iraq. At one point, they scandalised the Islamic world by stealing the meteoric black stone that lies at the spiritual heart of Mecca. The first sources I read painted them as communist vegetarian bandits, who followed a breakaway religion that owed as much to Manichaeanism as Islam. (Cyril Glassé’s New Encylopedia of Islam suggests they were mainly vegetarian. I do not trust his independent un-referenced work; not least because he calls the ethical vegan Al-Ma’arri a “crypto-Manichaean”. I found no evidence of this when doing a show about Al-Ma’arri in 2012.) Less romantic sources, such as the Encyclopedia Iranica, position them simply as radical Shia Muslims. The people nicknamed “al-Baqliyyah” (UK: “Greengrocers” US: “Produce sellers”) in southern Iraq were Qarmatians. My final script is based on M G S Hodgson’s entry in the Brill Encyclopedia of Islam, with some information from Wilferd Madelung. I also found multiple versions of the etymology of al-Baqliyyah; some of which had nothing to do with vegetarianism. But I really think someone who can read the primary sources (in classical Arabic) would be able to dig deeper than the brief outlines from Hodgson and Madelung. Cyril Glassé was of the opinion that orthodox Qarmatians put pressure on the rest to be vegetarian, and I don’t know where that idea came from. Farhad Daftary (author of the Encyclopedia Iranica article) tells me that “we cannot consider them as vegetarians”. I’d be happy to share my detailed notes with anyone who wants to take this further. Balkans: Did any Bogomils follow a Vegan Diet? One academic told me that there was a source that suggested the Bogomil clergy followed a vegan diet. This would not be a surprise – it would be a logical extension of existing orthodox fasts. and if the Manichaeans did, why not the Bogomils? (The Bogomils presumably never met any Manichaeans, but they were part of scholarly common knowledge in Christendom.) I asked every relevant academic I could find, and didn’t find anyone who had heard of a direct reference. We know a lot about the Cathars because of the papacy conducted a detailed inquisition and kept the records. On the other hand, the Byzantine empire didn’t gather as much information about the Bogomils, and much of has been lost over the past few hundred years. China: What’s in Emperor Wu of Liang’s essay about meat-eating? Wu of Liang wrote an essay about why we should be vegetarian. It’s on Wikisource. It’s just never been translated into English. It’s as important to the history of vegetarianism as the writings of ancient Greek or Indian vegetarians, which have been available in English translation in some cases for centuries. So if you happen to be able to read T’ang dynasty Chinese and can translate it into English please consider having a read of “Of meat and wine” (at least, I think that’s what 断酒肉文 means) by Emperor Wu of Liang. There’d probably be quite a few English speakers interested in reading it too. The Links to Broader History When it came to Buddhist vegetarianism, I was fortunate that John Kieschnick had already written an excellent overview. But the rest of the continent required me to dive deep into research into Bogomils, Cathars, and Islam. Even letting the show run to 46 minutes – the longest yet – I had to leave a lot of stuff out. And in the process of research, I came across a lot of stuff that has nothing to do with vegetarianism, but it pained me to leave out anyway. That time the Chinese emperor tried to please Buddhists by sacrificing an animal to the Buddha At first, Buddhism was slotted into traditional Chinese religion, perhaps as additions to the Daoist pantheon. And these additions sometimes ran ahead of the monks and nuns who actually understood the Buddhist dharma. In 166 CE, the emperor was reported as having sacrificed animals jointly to the Buddha and (the legendary founder of Daoism) Lao-tse. Opposition to animal sacrifices has been a defining feature of Buddhism since the beginning, so he rather missed the point. All the Challenges to the Medieval Roman Church When I look into a cultural movement whether it’s the mystery religions of ancient Greece or the anti-clericals of medieval France, I pick out the vegetarian threads, but wish I could have included the whole movement. And I wish I could have included more of the interview with Dr John Arnold – but I need to put a limit on episode length! The Cathars were just one aspect of the challenge to the church. Other groups also eschewed the trappings of the establishment to rework Christianity. A similar semi-heretical movement, the Waldensians, had even produced a translation of the New Testament in the local language Franco-Provençal. Even the Bishop who was forced to disavow heresies in the tenth century plays his part – he was credited with introducing the abacus from neighbouring Arab Iberia. The Waldensians aren’t the only group that survived. The early Cistercians were also living monastic abstemious lives that reminded people of Jesus’ apostles. And they’re still an active order of Roman Catholic monks. The European events of this episode also accidentally created France. The Albigensian crusade was an excuse for King of France (based in the north) to annex the Mediterranean lands. This episode has a blink-and-miss-it cameo appearance by one of the most important figures in Muslim history In the show, I recount the first mention of vegetarianism in the context of Islam – when the preacher ‘Amir ibn ‘Abd Qays is questioned on behalf of the Caliph about ‘Amir’s (overblown) reputation for vegetarianism. The person who quizzed ‘Amir (Mu‘Āwiyah) goes on to become Caliph, and fight the war that sunders Sunni from Shia. This is the central divide in Islam. Pun of the Month Is in the episode itself, and shouted by our troupe. The Chinese word for “Demon” (“Mo”) is also how the Chinese pronounce “Mani”. Many academics suspect that the shout of “Vegetarian Demon Worshippers” is a play on words that references Manichaeans. Credits I had to rely on even more academic advice than usual for this episode. I’d like to thank Claire Taylor, Yuri Stoyanov, John Kieschnick, Renan LaRue, Erica Hunter, and Andrew Chittick. The ambience in the fable of Zhi Zhong is CC-BY Klank Beeld; the recording of a Niger village muezzin call was contributed to the public domain by Felix Blume; and the monastic chanting by singer Jayme Amatnecks. The Uyghur folk song “Mira Jihan” was sung by the London Uyghur Ensemble, and featured by their kind permission. The theme music is by Robb Masters. The actors were Sandeep Garcha, Chetan Pathak, Selva Rasalingham, Jeremey Hancock, Guillaume Blanchard, and Yasser Sha’aban, with additional laughter by Orna Klement. Bibliography A bar over a vowel (“ā”) lengthens it. 1630116 NTIQX47J items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ BeDuhn, Jason. 2000. The Manichaean Body: In Discipline and Ritual. Campany, Robert Ford. 2012. Signs from the Unseen Realm : Buddhist Miracle Tales from Early Medieval China /. Classics in East Asian Buddhism. Honolulu : University of Hawaiʻi Press,. Erbstösser, Martin. 1984. Heretics in the Middle Ages. Leipzig: Edition Leipzig. Fournier, Jacques. 1978. Le registre d’inquisition de Jacques Fournier (Evêque de Pamiers) 1. 1. Paris: Mouton. Gernet, Jacques. 1995. Buddhism in Chinese Society : An Economic History from the Fifth to the Tenth Centuries. Studies in Asian Culture. New York: University of Columbia Press,. Goossaert, Vincent. 2004. “The Beef Taboo and the Sacrificial Structure of Late Imperial Chinese Society.” In Of Tripod and Palate: Food, Politics and Religion in Traditional China, edited by Roel Sterckx, 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Hamilton, Janet, and Bernard Hamilton. 1998. Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World, c. 650-c. 1450. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Hodgson, M. G. S. 1986. “Bakliyya.” Edited by H. A. R Gibb, B Lewis, Ch Pellat, J Schacht, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, E. van Donzel, J. van Lent, and P. J Bearman. The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden: Brill. Ibn Baṭṭūṭaẗ, Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd Allâh, and Mahdi Husain. 1953. The Reḥla of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, India, Maldive Islands and Ceylon. Baroda: Oriental Institute. https://archive.org/stream/TheRehlaOfIbnBattuta/231448482-The-Rehla-of-Ibn-Battuta#page/n241/mode/2up. Ibn Saʻd, Muḥammad. 1997. The men of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers. Kieschnick, John. 2004. “Buddhist Vegetarianism in China.” In Of Tripod and Palate: Food, Politics and Religion in Traditional China, edited by Roel Sterckx, 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Lieu, Samuel N. C. 1998. Manichaeism in Central Asia and China. Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill. Lieu, Samuel N. C. 1985. Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and Medieval China: A Historical Survey. Manchester, UK; Dover, N.H., USA: Manchester University Press. Madelung, Wilfred. 2001. “The Fatimids and the Qarmatis of Bahrayn.” In Medieaval Ismaíli History and Thought, edited by Farhad Daftary. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. McGregor, Richard J. A, Lenn Evan Goodman, Institute of Ismaili Studies, and Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʼ. 2012. The case of the animals versus man before the King of the Jinn a translation from the Epistles of the brethren of purity. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1036296. Moore, R. I, and Medieval Academy of America. 1995. The Birth of Popular Heresy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press in association with the Medieval Academy of America. O’Hanlon, Rosalind, D. A Washbrook, and St. Antony’s College (University of Oxford), eds. 2011. Religious Cultures in Early Modern India: New Perspectives. New Delhi: Routledge. Papaconstantinou, Arietta, ed. 2015. Conversion in Late Antiquity: Christianity, Islam, and beyond : Papers from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Sawyer Seminar, University of Oxford, 2009-2010. Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Sawyer Seminar. Rauw, Tom De, and Ann Heirman. 2011. “Monks for Hire Liang Wudi’s Use of Household Monks (Jiaseng ).” The Medieval History Journal 14 (1): 45–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/097194581001400103. Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 2014. History of Meat Alternatives (965 CE to 2014): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook. https://books.google.com/books?id=CkvgBQAAQBAJ. Smith, Margaret. 1978. The Way of the Mystics: The Early Christian Mystics and the Rise of the Sūfīs. New York: Oxford University Press. Tạbarī, Muḥammad ibn Jarīr. 1990. The Crisis of the Early Caliphate. Bibliotheca Persica. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press,. Wakefield, Walter L, and Austin P Evans. 1991. Heresies of the High Middle Ages. New York: Columbia University Press. Xiaoxiaosheng, and David Tod Roy. 2006. The plum in the golden vase, or, Chin P’ing Mei. Princeton, N.J.; Oxford: Princeton University Press. Daftary, Farhad. 1989. “Carmatians.” Encyclopaedia Iranica. London; Boston; Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/carmatians-ismailis. Zürcher, Erik. 2007. The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. Leiden: Brill. The post VegHist Ep 7: Heresies. On Chinese Buddhists, Cathars, Bogomils, Islam, and Manichaeans; with Vincent Gooseart, John Arnold, Jason BeDuhn, and Ven. Chueh Yun; at the Fo Guang Shan Buddhist Temple, in London first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
34 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 6: Hinduism. On Indian Vegetarianism, Vaishnavism, Satvik, and Mahayana Buddhism; with Sanjukta Gupta, Deepak Anand, and Ranjan Garavu; at Ananta Vasudeva Temple, Bhubaneswar and Nalanda Mahavihara
In the first millennium CE, Indian vegetarianism advances from an ascetic fringe to a mainstream high-status lifestyle. Episode 6: Hinduism How did vegetarianism permeate Indian society? Ian tracks the changes in India’s religious life during the first millennium, following the vegetarian strands of the tapestry that we now call Hinduism. Ian travels to a temple to Vishnu in eastern India to understand the importance of vegetarianism to his worshippers. He talks to theologians and historians in Oxford and Delhi about the factors that caused the change. He uncovers heated arguments about vegetarianism and animal advocacy in the leaves of India’s sacred texts. And he explores the medieval Buddhist monastic university of Nalanda, in the company of a lecturer from its modern namesake. Play or download (42MB MP3) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Ranjan Garuva, Ananta Vasudeva Temple (Wikipedia), Bhubaneswar Prof KTS Saroa, University of Delhi Prof GC Tripathi Prof Richard Gombrich (Wikipedia) (University of Oxford) Sanjukta Gupta (University of Oxford) Dr Deepak Anand (blogger.com) (Buddhist University of Nalanda) Readings Rules for student Brahmins, from the Gautama Dharmasūtra. Translation by Muller. Extracts from Laws of Manu on vegetarianism (V26/7, V39, V48). Translation by Bühler Defence of the cow to be sacrificed by Brahmins from Manimekalai. The argument about the sacrifice of a goat, from The Anugita Parva of the Mahābhārata, based on the translation by Ganguli in consultation with John Smith. The half-golden Mongoose, from the Mahābhārata Extracts from Nīlakēci’s argument with Buddhist nun Kuṇṭalakēci, in the Tamil Jain epic Nīlakēci’s, translation by Katherine Ulrich Shaivite condemnation of Jains by Campantar and Appar, taken from the Teveram, translation by Katherine Ulrich The Lankavatara Sutra, translation by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki Half-Golden Mongoose You might be wondering what the deal with the half-golden Mongoose in the Mahabharata was. He was looking for a perfect sacrifice to remove his curse (of being a half-golden Mongoose), and had hoped that the immense horse sacrifice at the end of this truly epic war might be it. But he learns that whatever makes an offering perfect, victory in war and animal sacrifice isn’t it. Pun of the Month One reading I didn’t get a time to include was from the Laws of Manu, about how meat-eaters will be consumed in return: “He whose meat in this world do I eat will in the other world me eat.“ Wise men say this is why meat is called meat. This is just because of the heroic act of punning that renders the Sanskrit folk etymology (“mamsa” = meat, “mam” = me, “sa” = he) into English in a way that still makes sense. (Alas, I’ve lost the name of the first translator to do this. ) Credits I’d like to thank Sanjeeb Kumar (YouTube) of the artistic Kanti Centre for practical help in Bhubaneswar. Katherine Ulrich and John Smith helped enormously with historical advice and translations. Music by Robb Masters. The actors were Sandeep Garcha, Chetan Pathak, and Selva Rasalingam. Bibliography Where there are no established Anglicisations (eg “ahimsa” for “ahiṃsā”), I have rendered Indic languages in Latin letters with marks called diacritics, loosely following the IAST standard explained at Jainpedia. For example “ś” is a soft “sh”, and a bar over a vowel lengthens it. 1630116 GH4SGBH6 items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Alsdorf, Ludwig, and Hanns-Peter Schmidt. 2010. The History of Vegetarianism and Cow-Veneration in India. Routledge Advances in Jaina Studies. London: Routledge. 1 Basham, Arthur L, and Kenneth G Zysk. 1991. The origins and development of classical Hinduism. New York [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press. Chakravarti, A, and Prākr̥ta Bhāratī Akādamī. 1994. Neelakesi. Jaipur: Prakrit Bharati Academy. Davis, Richard H. 1998. “The Story of the Disappearing Jains: Retelling the Śaiva-Jain Encounter in Medieval South India.” In Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, edited by John E Cort. Albany (N. Y.): State university of New York press. De Bary, William Theodore. 1958. Sources of Indian Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. Hiltebeitel, Alf. 2001. Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader’s Guide to the Education of the Dharma King. University of Chicago Press. 2 Peterson, Indira V. 1998. “Śramaṇas against the Tamil Way: Jains As Others in Tamil Śaiva Literature.” In Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, edited by John E Cort. Albany (N. Y.): State university of New York press. Smith, Brian K. 1990. “Eaters, Food, and Social Hierarchy in Ancient India: A Dietary Guide to a Revolution of Values.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion LVIII (2): 177–206. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/LVIII.2.177. 3 Ulrich, Katherine E. 2007. “Food Fights.” History of Religions 46 (3): 228–61. https://doi.org/10.1086/513255. Ganguli, Kisari Mohan, trans. 1883. “The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa Translated into English Prose.” In . Vol. 14. Calcutta: Bharata Press. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m14/index.htm. 4 The post VegHist Ep 6: Hinduism. On Indian Vegetarianism, Vaishnavism, Satvik, and Mahayana Buddhism; with Sanjukta Gupta, Deepak Anand, and Ranjan Garavu; at Ananta Vasudeva Temple, Bhubaneswar and Nalanda Mahavihara first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
12 minutes | 5 years ago
Vegan Politicians: Kerry McCarthy MP on Brexit
As the British public make their biggest decision in a generation, Ian asks Kerry McCarthy MP about the potential impact of Brexit on animals. Vegan MP on EU Referendum In this special short extra edition of the Vegan Option, Ian catches up with longstanding vegan MP, and main official opposition spokeswoman on farming and the environment, Kerry McCarthy. How does she think animals would vote? (And, for that matter, how will Ian?) Play or download (17MB MP3) (via iTunes) I compiled the thoughts of ten EU immigrant vegans for a post on my friend Sean’s blog, Fat Gay Vegan. I also mentioned the UK Government’s recent proposal (now withdrawn) to make the poultry industry self-regulating. Party Spokeswomen and man on Brexit: “A Vote for the EU is a vote for Animals” by Kerry McCarthy MP, Labour shadow secretary of state for the Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs “If Animals Could Vote, they Would Vote to Remain” by Keith Taylor MEP, Green party spokesman on animals “Leave or Remain? AWP’s position …” by Vanessa Hudson, leader of the Animal Welfare Party Podcaster and YouTuber VeganTrix (SoundCloud) filmed Kerry McCarthy’s full talk to VegFestUK [since deleted from YouTube]. It’s an hour long and very interesting, with a bit of gossip about life as a vegan MP. Plus, I’m in it. An audio-only version will be up soon. Other articles: A video explainer for non-Brits from the Guardian “In or Out, that is the Question” by Jasmijn de Boo (quoted in the show) “Brexit would be Disastrous for Britain’s Farmed Animals” by Sam Barker in The Guardian “Will EU Exit put a Stop to Live Animal Exports?” from Kent News “What would Brexit mean for Animals?” by Maria Chiorando in Vegan Life magazine “Greener In – Obviously!” by Jonathon Porritt (not about animal issues, but is about the tension between ethical regulation and other political priorities) Credits Music by Robb Masters. Interview recorded at VegFestUK Bristol.The post Vegan Politicians: Kerry McCarthy MP on Brexit first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
35 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 5: Flesh and Spirit. On Egyptian monasticism, Early Christianity, Plutarch, Neoplatonism, and Manicheansim; with David Grummet, Nicholas Baker-Brian, Michael Beer, and Fr. Abouna Yostas St. Athanasius
In the eastern Roman Empire, several faiths and philosophies agree on one thing; that you need to eschew flesh to live a life of the spirit. Episode 5: Flesh & Spirit Not all Romans celebrated pagan sacrifices or the bloodthirsty arena. Some Romans followed the semi-mythical vegetarian Pythagoras, or neoplatonist philosophers who preached a vegetarian contemplative life. In the melting pot of Jewish mythology, Greek philosophy, and the worship of Jesus many forms of Christianity emerge. Some of them advocate vegetarianism. The lost world religion of Manichaeanism took ideas from India and was led by a plant based priesthood that would last a thousand years. Alexandria in Egypt is the epicentre of many of these contemplative movements. Ian visits a valley in Yorkshire that still echoes with the traditions of the ancient Egyptian desert – the Coptic Christian monastery of St. Athanasius. He discovers why the monks pursue that life, what it means to them, and how they maintain some of the original vegetarian traditions of the Egyptian desert fathers. Play or download (43MB MP3) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Fr. Abouna Yostas St. Athanasius (St. Athanasius’ Monastery) Dr David Grummet (University of Edinburgh, davidgrumett.com) Dr Michael Beer (@Sutekh69) Dr Nicholas Baker-Brian (Cardiff University) Readings Seneca the Younger, “Epistles“, 1st Century CE. Philo (attributed), “The Contemplative Life”, 1st Century CE. Translation by Charles Duke Yonge Paul of Tarsus, “Letter to the Romans”, 1st Century CE. Romans 14:2-3. Gospel of the Ebionites, 1st or 2nd Century CE (as quoted in fragments by a later Christian heresiologist). Translation by Montague Rhode James 1924 Jerome (attributed), “The History of the Monks (Fr Theon)”, traditionally 5th century. Plutarch, “On the Eating of Flesh”, 1st Century CE. Translation by PD Loeb Clement of Alexandria, “Miscellanies”, turn of 3rd Century CE. Translation by William Wilson 1885 Porphyry, “On the Abstention from Flesh”, 3rd Century CE, Translation by Thomas Taylor Council of Ancyra, 314 CE. Translation by Henry Percival 1900 Augustine of Hippo, “Against the Manichaeans”, 388 CE. Translation by Richard Stothert 1887 Production Diary Now the story has reached characters whose writing survives to the present in volumes, I’m spending less time talking about historical sources and more time quoting people. And it’s hard to leave things out. There are so many things that Plutarch said in the first century that people like Vegan Sidekick have had to repeat in the twenty-first. This was also the hardest episode for which to arrange a location visit; the story unfolded a long way from where I live, there’s not enough reason to travel, and precious few ethical vegetarians. It took me a while to find the monastery of St. Athanasius. The tattoo of a Coptic cross on Fr. Yostas’ wrist is what modern Copts (Egypt’s Christian minority) show on entry into a church. Credits Music by Robb Masters, and Michael Levy. The actors were Jeremy Hancock and Yasser Sha’aban. The music was: Theme by Robb Masters Sacred Flame of Vesta, by Michael Levy Avinu Malcheinu, Jewish traditional, arranged and performed by Michael Levy Hurrian Hymn, anonymous ancient Mesopotamian, arranged by Michael Levy based on translation of Ugarit tablet by Richard Dumbrill The show also included part of a service at the monastery of St. Athanasius, and (at the end) an Ethiopian Orthodox Service at St. Mary of Tserha Sion in Hackney, East London. The icon of St. Nofer the hermit is taken with permission from this Russian-language tourist website. Special thanks to the Coptic Monastery of St. Athanasius, and Marian and Kevin McDonald (my parents) for driving me there. Bibliography 1630116 5QRZZUW9 items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Beckwith, Roger T. 1988. “The Vegetarianism of the Therapeutae, and the Motives for Vegetarianism in Early Jewish and Christian Circles.” Revuequmran Revue de Qumrân 13 (1-4 (49-52)): 407–10. Brock, Sebastian P. 1999. From Ephrem to Romanos: Interactions between Syriac and Greek in Late Antiquity. Aldershot; Brookfield, USA: Ashgate. Grimm, Veronika E. 1996. From Feasting to Fasting, the Evolution of a Sin: Attitudes to Food in Late Antiquity. London; New York: Routledge. Kelhoffer, James A. 2005. The Diet of John the Baptist: “Locusts and Wild Honey” in Synoptic and Patristic Interpretation. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. Magness, Jodi. 2002. The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids, MI.: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Muers, Rachel, and David Grumett. 2010. Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet. London, New York: Routledge. Schott, Jeremy M. 2008. Christianity, Empire, and the Making of Religion in Late Antiquity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Shaw, Teresa M., Michael Beer, and John Wilkins. 2008. “Perspectives from Antiquity.” In Eating and Believing Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Vegetarianism and Theology, by David Grumett and Rachel Muers. London; New York: T & T Clark. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10427149. Strousma, G. 1986. “The Manichaean Challenge to Egyptian Christianity.” In The Roots of Egyptian Christianity, by Birger A Pearson and James E Goehring. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Wilkins, John, and Shaun Hill. 2006. “Meat and Fish.” In Food in the Ancient World, 133,147. Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell Pub. Geek recommendation: some of the Christian theologians in this episode also appear in the excellent (and uncharacteristically monster-free) Doctor Who audio drama Council of Nicea.The post VegHist Ep 5: Flesh and Spirit. On Egyptian monasticism, Early Christianity, Plutarch, Neoplatonism, and Manicheansim; with David Grummet, Nicholas Baker-Brian, Michael Beer, and Fr. Abouna Yostas St. Athanasius first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
32 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 4: Ashoka. On India’s animal advocate Buddhist king and the spread of the śramanas; with Bharati Pal and Suchandra Ghosh; at the Kalinga rock edict, India
In the largest ancient Indian empire, at the height of its power, its Buddhist king advocates for animals in his edicts, and tries to change India for good. Episode 4: Ashoka In the fourth century BCE, the śramaṇa movement (anti-violence anti-ritual ascetics) has produced three religions: the vegetarian Jains, the freegan(ish) Buddhists, and the mysterious (and now vanished) Ājīvikas. The Mauryan Empire is absorbing almost all of the subcontinent, from present-day Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal. At its height in the middle of the third century BCE, the king – Ashoka – has edicts carved in stones and columns across the realm. Alongside the rulings and propaganda you might expect, his edicts oppose the slaughter and abuse of animals. Ian travels to the Indian Museum in Calcutta to speak with historian Dr Suchandra Ghosh. And he visits a hillside that looks down on the battlefield that – King Ashoka says – turned him way from violence forever, and where Ashoka erected an edict that still stands today. Play or download (44MB MP3) (via iTunes) Contributors: Dr Suchandra Ghosh (Calcutta University) (Academia.edu) Dr Bharati Pal (Odisha State Museum) Dr U.C. Dwivedi (Patna Museum) Locations: Dhauli, Odisha, India Travelog by Rangan Datta Patna Museum, Bihar, India The Indian Museum, Calcutta/Kolkata These are the artefacts of the Ashoka and his dynasty we talk about during the show. Please select a thumbnail to bring up the gallery: Readings The translations of the edicts of Ashoka Maurya are based on those of Hultsch 1925, Ven. S Dhammika 1993, and Romila Thapar 1999. I had a look at the original work of Prinsep and Wilson (PDF) who decoded the Brahmi characters in the nineteenth century. The Indian diplomat is Megasthene. He was based in Pataliputra, at King Chandragupta’s court, and his work Indika (PDF) (various fragments and translations) remained the major Greek source on India for centuries. Translating “dāsa” – slave or servant? When Ashoka defines dharma, he starts with a list of who should be treated properly, beginning with “bonded servant”. This is how I translated “dāsa” – a word scholars variously translated as “servant”, “slave”, or simply left untranslated. (It has other meanings, too, like “religious devotee”, but not here.) So what is a dāsa? We know from a contemporary orally transmitted book of governance that they couldn’t change master unless they bought their freedom, but they also had legal protections against abuse, demeaning tasks, property theft, or being sold on to someone else. Ancient Greek commentators say there’s no slavery in India, implying they don’t recognise dāsas as slaves. My original script used the translation “slave”, explained that in more detail, and added: Ashoka usurps the spiritual monopoly of Brahmins, spreads a casteless religion, and his attempt to change a continent’s values is astounding; but it’s still a stratified society. He does not seem to change that. I changed it because that would have been a distraction from the story. But accepting that dāsas are quite different to Greco-Roman slaves, they’re still forced labourers in any modern sense. And the Mauryan empire has a Greek corner in which Greek-style slavery presumably did exist. (In one text, the Buddha says that the Greeks have only two castes – slaves and free.) We look back at Ashoka from the perspective of a society that finds all forms of human slavery abhorrent but generally takes it for granted that other animals exist for humans. We’re used to assuming that the first injustice is challenged before the second, but that’s not always the case. Of course, the word “slavery” today principally conjures up the racist “peculiar institution” of the southern United States and Caribbean, and the transatlantic slave trade. When the movement to abolish those horrors gets going, campaigners against the abuse of animals will be part of the alliance. But that’s seven episodes (and almost 2000 years) away. Diary The interviews were recorded in early 2014, before the the lion capital was seriously damaged in a museum accident. Recording these interviews was a little hectic. In order to make a different interview in Calcutta on the Saturday after interviewing Dr Ghosh, I took an overnight train to Bhubaneswar on for Friday morning, gave myself a day to set up the Dhauli interview, head back overnight to Calcutta for another interview; and then back to Bhubaneswar in the hope of gathering material on Sunday. (Which you’ll hear in episode six.) The following Monday was Holi, the Indian spring festival of colours. Folk in the west have embraced it as a chance to throw brightly coloured powder at each other. I alighted in Bhubaneswar, Orissa. I’d given myself a day to setup and a day to interview. My solution in India when I hadn’t managed to set anything up with phones and emails beforehand was to turn up on people’s doorsteps – and the local Archaeological Survey of India office can be relied upon to know everyone. They very kindly sent me to Dr Pal at the museum. This is probably where I should mention that Holi is a much bigger deal in Orissa. There’s a major procession with religious idols, and two linked festival days. So I’d turned up on the Friday before a bank/public holiday weekend. And at the end of the working day, just before starting her holiday, Dr Pal very graciously got into a motor-rickshaw for the Dhauli hillside. That schedule meant I completely missed Holi on the following Monday, apart from sharing the carriage with young folk whose clothing was still tinged with coloured powder. Credits The actors were Jeremy Hancock, Sandeep Garcha and Vinay Varma as King Ashoka Maurya. The series has included some brilliant actors in a range of roles, but this is the first episode where a single actor carries the show in a single role. Vinay is an accomplished Hyderabad-based actor who has appeared in a range of Hindi and Telugu films, TV series, and theatre. The music is by Robb Masters, and Michael Levy. The clip played under discussion of Greek India is the “Epitaph of Seikilos”, taken from a Greek gravestone, performed by Michael Levy on his album “The Ancient Greek Lyre”. The composite image (of the Dhauli elephant with text of the edict) is available for re-use under a CC-BY-SA license; attribution should link back to this page (or list veghist.org in physical media) and name either the “The Vegan Option” or “Vegetarianism: The Story So Far”. The original photograph is by Michael Gunther. Special thanks to the Archaeological Survey of India, and to Nimi Hirani of The Philosophy Club Ahmedabad (FB) for advice and interpretation throughout my time in India. This episode was sponsored by Kickstarter backers Menka and Ajay Sanghvi, to whom I’m very grateful. Bibliography Where there are no established Anglicisations (eg “Ashoka” for “Aśoka”), I have rendered Indic languages in Latin letters with marks called diacritics, loosely following the IAST standard explained at Jainpedia. For example “ś” is a soft “sh”, and a bar over a vowel lengthens it. 1630116 7Q2FRN4Z items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Aśoka, and James Prinsep. 1838. On the Edicts of Piyadasi, or Asoka, the Buddhist Monarch of India, Preserved on the Girnar Rock in the Gujerat Peninsula, and on the Dhaulí Rock in Cuttack; with the Discovery of Ptolemy’s Name Therein. [Calcutta]. Dhammika, Shravasti, Aśoka, and Buddhist Publication Society. 1993. The Edicts of King Asoka: An English Rendering. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Hiltebeitel, Alf. 2001. Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader’s Guide to the Education of the Dharma King. University of Chicago Press. 1 Hultzsch., Eugene, and Aśoka. 1925. Inscriptions of Aśoka. Vol. 1. Corpus inscriptionum indicarum,. Oxford: Printed for the Govt. of India at the Clarendon Press,. Thapar, Romila. 1997. Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Rev. ed. Delhi : Oxford University Press,. Wilson, H. H, and Aśoka. 1836. On the Rock Inscriptions of Kapur Di Giri, Dhauli and Girnar. [Place of publication not identified]. http://books.google.com/books?id=iDJBAQAAMAAJ. The post VegHist Ep 4: Ashoka. On India's animal advocate Buddhist king and the spread of the śramanas; with Bharati Pal and Suchandra Ghosh; at the Kalinga rock edict, India first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
30 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 3: Pythagoreans. On the Cults of Orpheus and Pythagoras in Ancient Greece; with Hugh Bowden, Michael Beer, John Wilkins, and Armand D’Angour
In Ancient Greece, vegetarianism belongs to a secretive subculture – amongst the mystery religions of Orpheus and the musical mathematical cult of Pythagoras. Episode 3: Pythagoreans The Greek philosophers knew about vegetarians. But they were part of cults associated with the mythical figure of Orpheus, and the guru of harmony and number – Pythagoras. The people who introduced the concept of reincarnation into Greece. In the British Museum, Ian talks to Hugh Bowden, the head of the classics department of King’s College London and mystery religion specialist. There, Prof Bowden examines what its artefacts of Greek life and death tell us about attitudes to animals. Including – some suspect – an Orphic pocket guide to Hades. Play, download (43MB MP3) (via iTunes) or read transcript Contributors: Prof Hugh Bowden (@HughBowden) (King’s College, University of London) Prof Armand D’Angour (@ArmandDAngour) (Wikipedia) (www) (University of Oxford) Dr Michael Beer (@Sutekh69) Prof John Wilkins (University of Exeter) Readings The translations used in the show aren’t necessarily the ones linked to here; for example, I used “animate” as a consistent translation of “ἔμψυχος” (empsychos), to help communicate that they all used the same phrase to mean abstaining from flesh. Hesiod’s “Works and Days”, 8th century BCE. Translation by HG Evelyn-White 1914 Genesis 2:13 The accusation of Theseus from Euripides’ “Hippolytus” 428BCE. Translation by EP Coleridge 1910 Discussion of customs around meat in Plato’s “Laws”, Book 6, §782c, early 4th century BCE. Translation by RG Bury Mention of Orpheotelestai in Plato’s “Republic”, early 4th century BCE. Translation by Jowett 1892 Empedocles in Aristotle’s “Rhetoric”, Book 1 §13, 4th century BCE. Translation by JH Freese 1926 Polybius’ “Histories”, Book 2, 2nd century BCE. Translation by ES Shuckburgh 1889 Ovid’s “Metamorphoses”, Book 15, 8 CE. Translation by AS Kline 2000 Recreating Ancient Greek Music It was extremely tempting to go on a long tangent about efforts to record ancient Greek music. There are two extant compositions – the Delphic Hymn (which far from being Pythagorean relates to an animal sacrifice), and the haunting Epitaph of Seikilos. Historians go to great length to try to recreate lost instruments. Academics like Armand d’Angour endeavour to infer melodies based on the rhythm and accents. His current project to recreate ancient Greek music will bear fruit in the shape of a CD and radio broadcast later this year. Meanwhile, dedicated amateurs like Michael Levy simulate a range of ancient music. Credits Music by Robb Masters, Michael Levy, and Stefan Hagel. The actors were Jeremy Hancock, Sandeep Garcha, Orna Klement and Vinay Varma as Ashoka Maurya. Additional sound engineering by Mathieu Gillon. The track played under discussion of musical harmony is the “First Delphic Hymn to Apollo”, performed by Michael Levy on his album “The Ancient Greek Lyre”. The track played under the Orphic totenpass is “The Epitaph of Seikilos”, performed by Stefan Hagel. Special thanks to the British Museum, and to Elizabeth Alexandra Fisher for assistance and photography. Bibliography 1630116 6QPQ92P2 items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ (Translator), Paula Wissing, and Jean-Pierre Vernant. 1998. The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks. University Of Chicago Press. Beer, Michael. 2010. “Vegetarianism (Ch 2).” In Taste or Taboo: Dietary Choices in Antiquity, 74–113. Totnes: Prospect Books. Berthiaume, G. 1997. Les Roles Du Mageiros: Etude Sur LA Boucherie, LA Cuisine Et Le Sacrifice Dans LA Grece Ancienne (Mnemosyne , Vol Suppl. 70). Brill Academic Pub. Bowden, Hugh. 2010. Mystery Cults of the Ancient World. Princeton ; Oxford: Princeton University Press. Haussleiter, Johannes. 1935. Der Vegetarismus in der Antike. A. Töpelmann. Naiden, F. S. 2007. “The Fallacy of the Willing Victim.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 127: 61–73. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30033502. Rives, James B. 2011. “The Theology of Animal Sacrifice in the Ancient Greek World.” In Ancient Mediterranean Sacrifice, edited by Jennifer Wright Knust and Zsuzsanna Varhelyi, 187–98. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738960.001.0001/acprof-9780199738960-chapter-9. Nerdy language coincidence of the month: the Pythagoreans’ adversary at Croton was called Cylon (although pronounced with a hard “c”). Someone should make a TV series about their years on the run from a Cylon attack. It could have lots of references to Greek deities and mysticism.The post VegHist Ep 3: Pythagoreans. On the Cults of Orpheus and Pythagoras in Ancient Greece; with Hugh Bowden, Michael Beer, John Wilkins, and Armand D'Angour first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
31 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 2: The Middle Path. On Siddharta Gautama, and Buddhism; with Rev Varasambodhi Thera, Peter Flugel, and Richard Gombrich; at Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya, India
Ian travels to the tree where the Buddha is said to have achieved enlightenment, and explores the paradox of his early followers’ attitudes to vegetarianism. Episode 2: The Middle Path Of the many monks of the ancient Indian kingdom of Magadha, only one has become a global household name. Buddhism will spread ahimsa to the ends of the earth, and inspires many millions of vegetarians today. And yet the oldest Buddhist texts seem to portray the Buddha eating meat. Hear commentary from theologians from both vegetarian and meat-eating interpretations of Buddhism, the insights of world-leading historians, and a dramatisation of the moment in early texts where vegetarian Jain activists clash with Buddhist meat-eating. Play or download (43MB MP3) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Rev Dr Varasambodhi Thera, International Meditation Centre, Bodhgaya Prof KTS Saroa, University of Delhi Dr Peter Flügel, SOAS (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London) Prof Richard Gombrich (Wikipedia) (University of Oxford) Prof Dwijendra Narayan Jha (Wikipedia) Prof Uma Shankar Vyas (Buddhist University of Nalanda) Rev Dr Varasambodhi by the enclosure housing the trunk of the Mahabodhi tree and the Buddha’s throne. Readings The story of General Siha of Vaiśālī, and the rule of Seen/Heard/Suspect is in the Vinaya Pitaka (“The basket of discipline”) VI.31. Translation by I B Horner 1951 The story of Siddharta Gautama’s search for enlightenment is from the Jātaka Sutra of the Sutta Pitaka. Translation by Henry Clarke Warren 1896 Gautama Siddharta’s proclamation upon enlightenment is from the Mahāvastu (“great story”) 286. This is the only reading from a text that’s not part of the Pali canon followed by Theravada Buddhists, but from another early Buddhist collection that developed alongside it. Translation by J J Jones 1952 The “middle path” speech is from sermon in the Deer Park (at Sarnath, where the Buddha preached for the first time). Translation by Piyadassi Thera 1999 Notes on the Ājīvikas I was fascinated to find out there was a whole other religion, at the time as important as the Buddhists and the Jains, that’s now almost forgotten, called the Ājīvika. But the evidence we have is fragmented and contradictory – so it was an area where one spends much time but grows only in uncertainty. Even the small picture I give in the episode only hints at the patchwork of information we have about them. The very word “Ājīvika” for example, is often used in Buddhist texts in a similar sense to “heretic” – capturing every śramaṇa other than Buddhists and Jains. (US Vyas used the word in the heretical sense in the full interview; but I only used his references to the movement of Makkhali Gosal, which is consistent with the later use. It would have been too confusing to introduce different meanings.) The “educated guess” I mention is that of Arthur Llewellyn Basham, the twentieth century Welsh Indologist. His book “The Wonder that was India” was the leading popular history of the subcontinent. He did his PhD thesis on the Ājīvikas in the 1940s, and 65 years after publication (Basham, 1951) it is still the standard reference work. Another view I didn’t have time to include was Johannes Bronkhorst, who quite radically reinterpreted the mentions of Ājīvikas at the turn of the century (Bronkhorst, 2000). He argues that the early Buddhist texts named rival groups not according to doctrine but according to appearance. Most academics assume “Niganthā” in Buddhist texts means the Jains. (The word “Jain” didn’t emerge for many centuries.) So in his view, the words “Ājīvika” and “Niganthā” in Buddhist texts describe (respectively) naked rival orders and clothed rival orders; with the former term including not just the “true” Ājīvikas, but the Jain followers of Mahavir (who would have been naked) and the latter including the Jain followers of the teachings of Parshwa, the preceding tirthankara (Jain inspired teacher, literally “ford-maker”) who had lived centuries before. (We don’t know if the Jains cohered as a single tradition during Mahavir’s lifetime.) So, as interesting as this all is, all this tells us is how little we know about this period. (We can be confident that the Niganthās in the argument at Vaiśālī that our actors portray are Jains because Mahavir is mentioned earlier in the story. Just in case you were wondering.) Though I did manage to learn that the Ājīvika leader is, once you translate both names into their meaning, basically called Gandalf. (Those years poring over Tolkein’s fictional etymology finally pay off.) Credits Music by Robb Masters. The actors were Sandeep Garcha, Chetan Pathak, and Selva Rasalingam. Bibliography Where there are no established Anglicisations (eg “ahimsa” for “ahiṃsā”), I have rendered Indic languages in Latin letters with marks called diacritics, loosely following the IAST standard explained at Jainpedia. For example “ś” is a soft “sh”, and a bar over a vowel lengthens it. 1630116 DV884EHE items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Alsdorf, Ludwig, and Hanns-Peter Schmidt. 2010. The History of Vegetarianism and Cow-Veneration in India. Routledge Advances in Jaina Studies. London: Routledge. 1 Balbir, Nalini. 1984. “Normalizing Trends in Jaina Narrative Literature.” Indologica Taurinensia 2: 25–38. Basham, Arthur Llewellyn. 1951. History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas: A Vanished Indian Religion. London: Luzac & Company. Bronkhorst, Johannes. 2000. “The Riddle of the Jainas and Ājīvikas in Early Buddhist Literature.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 28: 511–29. https://www.academia.edu/3285845/The_riddle_of_the_Jainas_and_%C4%80j%C4%ABvikas_in_early_Buddhist_literature. Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. 2nd ed. Library of Religious Beliefs and Practices. London ; New York: Routledge. Gombrich, R. F. 2009. What the Buddha Thought. Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies Monographs. London: Equinox Pub. Haussleiter, Johannes. 1935. Der Vegetarismus in der Antike. A. Töpelmann. Nattier, J. J., and C. S. Prebish. 1977. “Mahasamghika Origins: The Beginnings of Buddhist Sectarianism.” History of Religions. An International Journal for Comparative Historical Studies 16 (3): 237–72. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=12877906. Jha, D. N. 2002. The Myth of the Holy Cow. London; New York: Verso. Smith, Brian K. 1990. “Eaters, Food, and Social Hierarchy in Ancient India: A Dietary Guide to a Revolution of Values.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion LVIII (2): 177–206. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/LVIII.2.177. 2 The post VegHist Ep 2: The Middle Path. On Siddharta Gautama, and Buddhism; with Rev Varasambodhi Thera, Peter Flugel, and Richard Gombrich; at Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya, India first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
30 minutes | 5 years ago
VegHist Ep 1: Ahimsa. Mahavir, the Jains, and other śramaṇas; with DN Jha, James Serpell, Richard Gombrich, & GC Tripathi; at Veerayatan, Rajgir, India
In the Ganges plain in Northen India in the middle of the first millennium BCE, the idea of “ahimsa” – non violence – emerges. Episode 1: Ahimsa Ian visits the intellectual hub of iron age India – the Kingdom of Magadha. He discovers a subculture of vagabond philosophers that developed two world religions; and the vegetarian order of monks and nuns who became the torchbearers of ahimsa. Play or download (41MB MP3) (via iTunes) or read transcript. Contributors: Sadhvi Yasājhe Maharaj Interpreter: Dr. Smita Bagrecha James Serpell (University of Pennsylvania) “One Man’s Meat: On The Evolution of Animal Food Taboos” (blog post) Prof Richard Gombrich (Wikipedia) (University of Oxford) Prof Dwijendra Narayan Jha (Wikipedia) Prof GC Tripathi Dr Priyadarshana Jain (University of Madras) Dr Peter Flügel, SOAS (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London) Prayer Halls and Museum at Veerayatan, Rajgir Locations: Veeryatan, Bihar BL Institute, Delhi Recording diary I’d only been told about Rajgir the day before arriving. I was staying at the refounded University of Nalanda for a couple of nights, where I interviewed two people who lived in the block in which I was staying. Institutions like that are fantastic for my research. But one interviewee – Deepak Anand – told me the real place I needed to go to was Rajgir. My desk research had led me to places like Vaisali – which will turn up via Buddhist texts in episode two – but at Rajgir, modern Jains celebrated and could talk about what happened there two and a half thousand years ago. Finding guests with good English is obviously helpful. So it was gratifying to learn that the Veerayatan Institution at Rajgir was led by Jain sadhvis (nuns) who were very used to communicating with foreign and English-speaking audiences, because of their outreach overseas. When I got there, I discovered all the English-speaking sadhvis were overseas doing outreach. So I had very little time to find both a learned sadhvi, and a way of interviewing her. An English-speaking physician, a glaucoma consultant from the hospital on the other side of the site, helped me out and acted as interpreter; and I’m very grateful to her indeed. Dubbing a non-English speaking guest is a lot more work (Yasājhe’s words were retranslated carefully and then read by actress Sandeep Garcha) but I’m glad now that the first words you hear from a guest in the series are in Hindi. This left me not much time to get to the station for the train back to Patna – later Magadha capital and current Bihar state capital. The background noise at the start of the show was from two different journeys: a crowded auto-rickshaw in Mahabodhi, and that train I took back to Patna. Both were travelling the kinds of routes Śramaṇas would have taken within ancient Magadha. Credits Particular thanks to Dr. Smita Bagrecha for interpreting Yasājhe at short notice. The featured pic is public domain painting of Mahavira, Rajasthan, circa 1900. Bibliography Where there are no established Anglicisations (eg “ahimsa” for “ahiṃsā”), I have rendered Indic languages in Latin letters with marks called diacritics, loosely following the IAST standard explained at Jainpedia. For example “ś” is a soft “sh”, and a bar over a vowel lengthens it. 1630116 DV884EHE items 1 chicago-author-date author asc 1 http://theveganoption.org/wp-content/plugins/zotpress/ Alsdorf, Ludwig, and Hanns-Peter Schmidt. 2010. The History of Vegetarianism and Cow-Veneration in India. Routledge Advances in Jaina Studies. London: Routledge. 1 Balbir, Nalini. 1984. “Normalizing Trends in Jaina Narrative Literature.” Indologica Taurinensia 2: 25–38. Basham, Arthur Llewellyn. 1951. History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas: A Vanished Indian Religion. London: Luzac & Company. Bronkhorst, Johannes. 2000. “The Riddle of the Jainas and Ājīvikas in Early Buddhist Literature.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 28: 511–29. https://www.academia.edu/3285845/The_riddle_of_the_Jainas_and_%C4%80j%C4%ABvikas_in_early_Buddhist_literature. Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. 2nd ed. Library of Religious Beliefs and Practices. London ; New York: Routledge. Gombrich, R. F. 2009. What the Buddha Thought. Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies Monographs. London: Equinox Pub. Haussleiter, Johannes. 1935. Der Vegetarismus in der Antike. A. Töpelmann. Nattier, J. J., and C. S. Prebish. 1977. “Mahasamghika Origins: The Beginnings of Buddhist Sectarianism.” History of Religions. An International Journal for Comparative Historical Studies 16 (3): 237–72. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=12877906. Jha, D. N. 2002. The Myth of the Holy Cow. London; New York: Verso. Smith, Brian K. 1990. “Eaters, Food, and Social Hierarchy in Ancient India: A Dietary Guide to a Revolution of Values.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion LVIII (2): 177–206. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/LVIII.2.177. 2 The post VegHist Ep 1: Ahimsa. Mahavir, the Jains, and other śramaṇas; with DN Jha, James Serpell, Richard Gombrich, & GC Tripathi; at Veerayatan, Rajgir, India first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
16 minutes | 7 years ago
Digital Vegans: Picking up the Tab, with Stephanie Redcross of Vegan Mainstream
Digital Vegans: The Tab As the internet transforms the media landscape, how can vegan organisations and businesses survive and thrive? In the midst of the crowdfunding campaign for Vegetarianism: The Story So Far, Ian McDonald interviews Stephanie Redcross of Vegan Mainstream. Play or download (23MB MP3) (via iTunes) This show is an update to Digital Vegans, in which we spoke with Eric Brent of Happy Cow, Kerry McCarthy and others at venerable group London Vegans, and reviewed vegan smartphone apps. The interview will form part of the Resonance 104.4FM broadcast radio edit of Digital Vegans. Stephanie Redcross Stephanie Redcross is the managing director of Vegan Mainstream – a San Diego-based marketing company that specialises in vegan and vegetarian businesses. @VeganMainstream on Twitter Thanks Digital media artist Robb Masters wrote our theme. Also, thank you to everyone who has backed the Kickstarter for a radio history of vegetarianism.The post Digital Vegans: Picking up the Tab, with Stephanie Redcross of Vegan Mainstream first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
30 minutes | 8 years ago
Palm Oil: with Catherine Laurence, Eric Lambin, Orangutan rescuer Daniek Hendarto, RSPO SG Darrel Webber
Palm Oil Palm oil is everywhere – from cooking oil to soap to vegan margarine. Equatorial rainforest and peatland are cleared and replaced with serried ranks of oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). The biodiversity of Borneo and Sumatra, including the iconic Orang Utan, is threatened by habitat loss. Some vegan activists say no product that causes so much destruction can be considered vegan. But is palm oil really worse than the alternatives? And can poor countries like Malaysia and Indonesia develop without it? Environmentalist Catherine Laurence helps me disentangle the thicket of issues. Hear academic experts Eric Lambin and Robert Greenland; vegan baker Ms Cupcake; primatologist Georgina Ash; vegan MP Kerry McCarthy; the boss of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil; and vegan Indonesian palm oil activist and Miskin Porno lead singer Daniek Hendarto. Play or download (38.3MB MP3) (via iTunes) Catherine Laurence There is more about Catherine in her blog post, “Being part of the solution“. Follow @calaurence on Twitter Guests Georgina Ash Georgina Ash is a primatologist who has worked and volunteered with Orangutans. She is now the picture editor for the World Society for the Protection of Animals in London, UK, where I spoke with her. Daniek Hendarto Daniek (pronounced “Danny”) works for Indonesian NGO the Centre for Orangutan Protection: he helps advise Zoos on care, resettling Orangutans from threatened areas, and campaigning against the impact of palm oil. Daniek is vegan, and also the lead singer of punk rock band “Miskin Porno”, which (content warning) sings sweary rants against palm oil: Listen to Miskin Porno at ReverbNation.com Prof Eric Lambin Dr Lambin is a Professor of Geography at Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium and at Stanford University, California. He specialises in land use change. Because of his work, he has received the Prix Franqui, and been elected to the US National Academy of Sciences. He is a meat reducer, for environmental reasons. Eric Lambin at Standford University, California USA Eric Lambin at Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, California USA Eric Lambin’s research activities, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium (PDF) Dr Robert Goodland Dr Goodland is a tropical ecologist. He went from an academic career to being an environmental advisor at the World Bank, and from there to being an environmental campaigner, consultant, and writer. He is vegan. Dr Goodland blogged at WorldBank.org about the research he did with Dr Anhang that concluded that livestock are responsible for 51% of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. He also wrote a column for The Guardian criticising the World Bank’s environmental impact in 2007. He received the Coolidge Memorial Medial from the International Union for Nature Conservation in 2008. Robert Goodland’s site Darrel Webber Darrel Webber left a career in business to join the World Wildlife Fund, where he liaised with palm oil companies to build wildlife corridors into their plans. He is omnivorous – his interest in conservation is led partially by his fishing. He joined the RSPO from WWF. As Director General of the RSPO, he has taken part in: A Google hangout with other palm oil activists and stakeholders (1 hr) Business podcast “The Breakfast Grill” (“The Green Side of Palm Oil”) Melissa Morgan (“Ms Cupcake”) Ms Cupcake is a vegan baker and media personality, the author of “The Naughtiest Vegan Cakes in Town” cookbook, and winner of the British Baker 2011 “Rising Star” award. Her bakery is in the gentrifying south London suburb of Brixton. @MsCupcakeUK on Twitter Kerry McCarthy MP You hear the Member of the UK Parliament for Bristol East and her two parliamentary colleagues in the shows about vegan politicians. There is more about her on the page for the first politics show. Oil Palm You can read reports from US-based Center for Science in the Public Interest (2005, PDF), the United Nations Environment Programme (2011, pdf), and campaigns from the Rainforest Action Network and the UK magazine Ethical Consumer. But you should definitely read Catherine’s blog post about what she thinks the solutions are, now the episode is done. As a commodity, we used statistics from the US Department of Agriculture. The Three Oil Palm Fruit Products The Oil Palm yields fruit; the fruit has both flesh and kernel; and both of those produce meal as well as oil. In the show, we talked mainly about the fruit oil (which is four-fifths of the economic value). Here is my working for how the economic yield breaks down (showing that it’s mostly the fruit oil). According to the Malaysian Palm Oil Board, each hectare produces: Oil: 4t at $750/t = $3000 = 80% Kernel oil: 500kg at $840/t = $420 = 16% Kernel cake/meal: 600kg at $250/t = $150 = 4% Total = $3750 The oils are used mainly for food, but are also used in biofuel and other non-food products. The kernel meal is mainly used as animal feed, but is sometimes also used locally as biofuel. The Oil as an Ingredient The saturated fat molecules in palm oil have a kink that makes it easy for the molecules to stack into a solid. For this reason, palm oil is a source of fats that are solid at room temperature, making “ambient products” possible. This is an issue for anyone avoiding fat, as well as for bakers. Orangutans and Habitat Loss The Orangutans (Indonesian: forest man) are the only species of great ape restricted to Asia. The Sumatran Orangutan is critically endangered; the Bornean Orangutan is endangered. (The other great apes are Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Eastern/Western Gorillas, and – lest we forget – Human). See also: “Orangutan Island” (Video, Discovery Channel) The Orangutans are a symbol, but not the only threatened species; the Sumatran Rhino is thought to number fewer than four hundred; and the Sumatran tiger is also critically endangered: with just 1 percent of the Earth’s land area, Indonesia’s rainforests contain 10% of the world’s known plants, 12% of mammals and 17% of all known bird species – Rainforest Action Network Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil The RSPO includes a wide range of producers, traders, and consumers of palm oil as well as NGOs. It marks palm oil that is traceable to source and produced in line with its principles and rules as CSPO (Certified Sustainable Palm Oil) The RSPO website provides information on consumption, production and purchase of CSPO Rainforest Action Network summed up the case against CSPO in a series of blog posts; and reported on breaches of local regulations and RSPO rules by Cargill (PDF) I mentioned the complaint against IOI; or see this letter to the press from one of the complainants (hat tip COP). The RSPO revised the specifics of some of its rules in 2013: I mentioned that WWF was so disappointed with this revision that they want to set up a new, stricter, certificate within the RSPO (PDF). Catherine includes more information about Green Palm and CSPO on her blog post about what consumers can do. Makers of Vegan Margarines Kerry Foods Kerry Foods make “Pure”, the UK’s leading brand of vegan margarine. They are RSPO members (membership page). Their Annual Communication of Progress for 2010-11 said only 2% of their palm oil was CSPO. My comparison with 10% of Palm Oil production being CSPO was based on these RSPO figures for CSPO production. Kerry failed to file an ACOP in 2011-12, as shown by their absence from this list [Update 2018: list now vanished, but you can looks at this empty search result instead]. The RSPO process does at least make it obvious when someone does not even fill in the paperwork. Earth Balance Earth Balance are produced by Boulder Brands. They are not RSPO members, and have a web page about their palm oil sourcing. Thanks … go to Robb Masters and Miskin Porno for the music. The title of the Miskin Porno song used in the show, translated and bowdlerised, is “F___ palm oil”. The illustration pic of Indonesian deforestation is by Vincent Poulissen, used with permission; the sound clip pic is of Orangutan is Kani from Melbourne Zoo by Macinate (and yes, I did try to find a pic of a freeliving Orangutan) used under CC-BY.The post Palm Oil: with Catherine Laurence, Eric Lambin, Orangutan rescuer Daniek Hendarto, RSPO SG Darrel Webber first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
29 minutes | 8 years ago
Science Fiction and Animals: from Jonathan Swift and HG Wells to Star Trek and Doctor Who; with Sherryl Vint, Robert McKay, and Tara Lomax
Science Fiction and Animals From Jonathan Swift’s talking horses to Star Trek’s Vulcans, from HG Wells to the Wachowskis, science fiction tackles the big questions about our relationship with other animals. Join the experts who investigate where animal studies meets media theory. Discover the themes in famous books, film, and TV – as well as the cult sci-fi stories that examine food ethics, the boundaries of humanity, and alternative ways of living. Discover what the experts really think of Planet of the Apes; what Soylent Green used to made from before they started using people; and hear everyone’s favourite Time Lord try to talk a monster out of eating humanity in our Doctor Who sketch. Play or download (18.5MB MP3) (via iTunes) Guests Dr Sherryl Vint Sherryl Vint edited the Animal Studies Issue of the Journal of Science Fiction Studies and has written Animal Alterity: Science Fiction and the Question of the Animal. She is a professor of English at the University of California, Riverside, where she reads science fiction and popular culture. She previously lectured at Brock University in her native Canada, which is a centre of animal studies theory. She calls herself a “vegetarian with vegan tendencies”; those tendencies include eating vegan apart from honey, alcohol filtered in non-vegan ways, and similar exceptions. Dr Robert McKay Robert McKay lectures in English literature at the University of Sheffield, England, specialising in animal studies and literature after 1945. He is part of the UK’s Animal Studies group, and contributed an essay to the collection Killing Animals. The Introduction and Conclusion by Erica Fudge are available to download via Academia.edu. He is vegan. Tara Lomax Tara Lomax is a PhD candidate in screen studies at the University of Melbourne, and a vegan activist. She is currently working on a conference paper on animal issues in Twleve Monkeys. Tara Lomax at academia.edu Tara is vegan and a campaigner. Books, Films, and TV cited Gulliver’s Travels Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, by Jonathan Swift, 1726 Gulliver’s Travels at Project Gutenberg Gulliver’s Travels at Wikipedia Frankenstein Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley, 1818 Frankenstein (1818 edition) at Project Gutenberg Frankenstein at Wikipedia Sherryl Vint mentions that the creature was made of human and non-human animal parts. When petitioning Victor Frankenstein to create him a bride, the creature promised to take the vegan pledge: If you consent, neither you nor any other human being shall ever see us again: I will go to the vast wilds of South America. My food is not that of man; I do not destroy the lamb and the kid to glut my appetite; acorns and berries afford me sufficient nourishment. My companion will be of the same nature as myself, and will be content with the same fare. We shall make our bed of dried leaves; the sun will shine on us as on man, and will ripen our food. The picture I present to you is peaceful and human, and you must feel that you could deny it only in the wantonness of power and cruelty. To be fair to to Victor Frankenstein (and to angry torch-wielding mobs everywhere) the creature had already killed at this point. Hat-tip to Philip Armstrong for the quotation. Mary Shelly was almost certainly vegetarian (although I haven’t tracked down a citation that would give me absolute confidence). Her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley, was an advocate of Rousseauist “back-to-nature” vegetarianism under the mentorship of her father. After Percy’s early death, she was best known for publishing his works, including pro-vegetarian poetry. Island of Dr Moreau The Island of Dr Moreau, by HG Wells, 1896 The Island of Dr Moreau at Project Gutenberg The Island of Dr Moreau at Wikipedia Our hero Prendick returns home distrustful of other humans: Then I look about me at my fellow-men; and I go in fear. I see faces, keen and bright; others dull or dangerous; others, unsteady, insincere,—none that have the calm authority of a reasonable soul. I feel as though the animal was surging up through them; that presently the degradation of the Islanders will be played over again on a larger scale. War of the Worlds The War of the Worlds, by HG Wells, 1898 The War of the Worlds text at Project Gutenberg The War of the Worlds at Wikipedia I mentioned that – despite comparing the carnivorous Martians to humanity’s own habits – HG Wells mocked vegetarians. For example his 1908 novel Ann Veronica features parody vegetarians Mr & Mrs Goopes. Sirius Sirius: a Fantasy of Love and Discord, by Olaf Stapledon, 1944 Sirius text at the University of Adelaide Sirius at Wikipedia Beyond Lies The Wubb Beyond Lies The Wubb, short story by Philip K Dick, 1952 Beyond Lies the Wubb at Project Gutenberg Beyond Lies the Wubb at Wikipedia Reading of “Beyond Lies The Wubb” by Colleen Patrick-Goudreau as part of her podcast Vegetarian Food for Thought I ended up leaving this out of the show, even though it includes a conversation about food ethics very similar to our Dr Who skit. To Serve Man To Serve Man, short story by Damon Knight, 1950 To Serve Man at Wikipedia To Serve Man, Twilight Zone episode, screenplay by Rod Serling, 1962 To Serve Man at Wikipedia To Serve Man at IMDB Doctor Who The clip is taken from: The Bells of Saint John, written by Steven Moffat, 2013 The Bells of Saint John at bbc.co.uk The Bells of Saint John at IMDB The Bells of Saint John at the Tardis Wiki The Doctor himself turns vegetarian in 1985’s The Two Doctors. A 1986 comic has him lapse; but Paul Cornell’s 1995 novel Human Nature (adapted for TV in 2007) suggests that he’s still vegetarian in his subsequent, seventh, incarnation. Either way, he was not vegetarian on his return to TV in 2005. Planet of the Apes The franchise begins with Pierre Boulle’s 1963 novel. Tara Lomax and Sherryl Vint specifically discussed … Planet of the Apes, screenplay by Michael Wilson and Rod Serling, 1968 Planet of the Apes shooting script Planet of the Apes at Wikipedia Planet of the Apes at IMDB Escape from the Planet of the Apes, screenplay by Paul Dehn, 1971 Escape from the Planet of the Apes at Wikipedia Escape from the Planet of the Apes at IMDB Rise of the Planet of the Apes, screenplay by Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver, 2011 Rise of the Planet of the Apes at Wikipedia Rise of the Planet of the Apes at IMDB Rise of the Planet of the Apes has attracted praise and caution from animal activists. I mentioned: Rise of the Planet of the Apes receives Peta’s seal of approval – Peta.org “Human, all too human” – Dr Nik Taylor of Flinders University disagrees in a column in The Guardian Soylent Green Make Room! Make Room!, novel by Harry Harrison, 1966 Make Room! Make Room! at Wikipedia Review and commentary by Paul Tomlinson Soylent Green, screenplay by Stanley R Greenberg,1973 Soylent Green at Wikipedia Soylent Green at IMDB Soylent Green review in an episode of Our Hen House podcast Bladerunner Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, by Philip K Dick, 1968 Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? at Wikipedia Bladerunner, screenplay by Hampton Fancher and David Peeples, 1982 Bladerunner at Wikipedia Bladerunner at IMDB Star Trek The clips are from: The Slaver Weapon, by Larry Niven, 1973 The Slaver Weapon at StarTrek.com The Slaver Weapon at Wikipedia The Slaver Weapon at Memory Alpha Yes, I did begin this show with yet more carnivorous cats. Is that not a perfect segue from the last show? Lonely Among Us, by D.C. Fontana and Michael Halperin, 1987 Lonely Among Us at StarTrek.com Lonely Among Us at Memory Alpha Lonely Among Us at IMDB There are a range of commentaries on the franchise’s treatment of animals: “A vegan’s view of Star Trek”, blog post by “Busy Vegan” Veronique Nicole, 2012 Vegetarian at Memory Alpha Star Trek wiki “Where no vegan has gone before”, blog post by Daniel of Austin TX lifestyle blog Red Hot Vegans, 2012 Uplift Uplift, series of novels by David Brin, 1980-1998 Uplift Universe at Wikipedia The Matrix The Matrix, screenplay by Lana and Andy Wachowski, 1999 The Matrix at Wikipedia The Matrix at IMDB Tara Lomax mentioned that the themes of the Matrix have been adopted by The Grace Communications Foundation in their series of satires The Meatrix. GCF argues makes an environmental and welfare case for non-intensive animal farming. Animals Animals, by Don LePan, 2000 Animals at Don LePan.com Don LePan at Wikipedia Transhuman Space Under Pressure, role-playing game sourcebook, written by David Morgan-Mar, Kenneth Peters, and Constantine Thomas, 2003 Transhuman Space at Steve Jackson Games Transhuman Space at Wikipedia This near-future hard science fiction setting is notable for two reasons. Firstly, it posited a European Union that had banned land animal farming. And secondly, I contributed a few paragraphs – undersea “pan-sentient” activists who kidnapped fish-farm executives and forced them to relive the braintaped last moments of dying tuna. [Spoiler Alert: Title Redacted] Even naming this book in this context would spoil a major turn of the plot – a spoiler that was impossible to completely avoid in the show. The curious can follow this link, and find out about the film adaption via the studio and IMDB. Wess’har Wess’har, series of novels by Karen Traviss, 2004-8 Wess’har at Karen Traviss.com Wess’har at Wikipedia The Doctor Who Skit The skit was written by myself with Sally Beaumont; and performed by Sally Beaumont. The skit references the Doctor’s acquaintanceship with Vegan miners working on Peladon, Leonardo Da Vinci (and his vegetarianism), and (in the extended version) convention 15 of the Shadow Proclamation. Sally Beaumont is an actor, playwright, and voiceover artist. She has played Ada Lovelace in a BBC documentary and sold Chewbacca a hair dryer in a TV commercial. Sally Beaumont at IMDB I am obviously very very grateful to her. Thanks :). (No, Time Lords do not always retain the same gender across incarnations. Thank you for asking.) See Also Discussions of science fiction of interest at: VeganSciFi.com – upbeat blog about animal questions and vegan personalities in science fiction Fiction with a vegan / animal rights sensibility at LibraryThing Thanks … go to Robb Masters for the music and voiceover, Catherine Laurence for voiceover, the guests, and to Sally Beaumont. Many academics took the time to help me with my research, but for whatever reason did not end up interviewed on the show. These include Nik Taylor, John Miller, Claire Molloy, Susan McHugh, and Philip Armstrong. Copyright Doctor Who, Star Trek, The Twilight Zone, Planet of the Apes, Escape from the Planet of the Apes, The Matrix, The Meatrix, and Bladerunner are copyright their respective owners. No challenge is made or implied. Short clips are used under fair dealing for the purposes of media criticism. The Dr Who skit used freeware sounds “Connecting to Earth” by Philip Bock, “Giga Core” by Cosmic Dreamer, “Crowd Talking” by SoundJay. It also used Tardis, Sonic Screwdriver and Sting sound effects that are copyright BBC, and used without permission. I am grateful to the BBC’s tolerant attitude to unauthorised work, make no challenge to the BBC’s copyright, and will remove those sound effects if the BBC requests. As I recognise that some of these corporations could, in principle, get out their lawyers and contest my fair use, and because I am using BBC intellectual property without permission, I cannot make this show available under a Creative Commons licence.The post Science Fiction and Animals: from Jonathan Swift and HG Wells to Star Trek and Doctor Who; with Sherryl Vint, Robert McKay, and Tara Lomax first appeared on THE VEGAN OPTION radio show and blog.
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