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Speaking of Race
47 minutes | a month ago
What does it mean to “decolonize” teaching and scholarship? Why would we want to do that? And how? We take on these questions and more in a panel discussion with social scientists and established scholars of race Lance Gravlee, John L. Jackson Jr., Stephanie McClure, and Yolanda Moses. Some Resources: Blum, Susan D., and Alfie Kohn, eds. (2020). Ungrading: Why rating students undermines learning (and what to do instead). West Virginia University Press. https://www.powells.com/book/ungrading-9781949199826 Harrison, Faye V., ed. (1991). Decolonizing anthropology: Moving further toward an anthropology for liberation. American Anthropological Association. https://www.powells.com/book/decolonizing-anthropology-2nd-edition-9780913167830 hooks, bell. (2014). Teaching to transgress. Routledge. https://www.powells.com/book/teaching-to-transgress-education-as-the-practice-of-freedom-9780415908085 Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. (2003). "Anthropology and the savage slot: The poetics and politics of otherness." In Global transformations. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 7-28. Wendland, Claire L. (2010). A heart for the work: Journeys through an African medical school. University of Chicago Press. https://www.powells.com/book/a-heart-for-the-work-9780226893273 The Boise State diversity course controversy: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2021/03/18/boise-state-suspends-diversity-course-1300-students Select works our guests wanted to share with podcast listeners: Gravlee, Clarence C. (2009). “How race becomes biology: Embodiment of social inequality.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138: 47–57. Gravlee, Lance. (2021) “How whiteness works: JAMA and the refusals of white supremacy.” Somatosphere. http://somatosphere.net/2021/how-whiteness-works.html/ Jackson Jr, John L. (2013). Thin description: Ethnography and the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem. Harvard University Press. https://www.powells.com/book/thin-description-9780674049666 McClure, SM (2017). Symbolic body capital of an “other” kind: African American females as a bracketed subunit in female body valuation. In Anderson-Fye, EP and Brewis, A (eds.) Fat Planet: Obesity, Culture and Symbolic Body Capital. University of New Mexico Press. McClure, SM. (2020) Living Unembodiment: Physicality and body/self discontinuity among African American Adolescent Girls. Ethos, 48(1): 3-28. Mukhopadhyay, Carol C., Rosemary Henze, and Yolanda T. Moses. (2013). How real is race? A sourcebook on race, culture, and biology, 2nd edition. Rowman & Littlefield. https://www.powells.com/book/how-real-is-race-9780759122734
34 minutes | 2 months ago
Karl Pearson and Geoffrey Morant
In this episode we interview historian of science Iris Clever about her research untangling the early 20th century entanglements of the biometricians, physical anthropology, and race. She pursues this topic through the exploration of work by the statistician and Galton protégé, Karl Pearson, and one of Pearson’s favorite students, Geoffrey Morant. Morant, who publicly opposed Nazi racism in the 1930s and 40s maintained the biological reality of race and the possibility of racial differences in mental characteristics. Resources: Clever, I., & Ruberg, W. (2014). Beyond Cultural History? The Material Turn, Praxiography, and Body History. Humanities, 3(4), 546-566. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0787/3/4/546/htm Morant, G. M. (1934). 126. A Biometrician's View of Race in Man. Man, 99-105. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2790912 Morant, G. M. (1939). The races of central Europe: A footnote to history: G. Allen & Unwin Limited. Morant, G. M. (1952). The Significance of Racial Differences. Paris: UNESCO. Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2018, 5/3/2018). Karl Pearson’s Worst Quotation? [Racist quotes from Karl Pearson's writings]. Retrieved from https://www.bayesianspectacles.org/karl-pearsons-worst-quotation/
31 minutes | 3 months ago
In this episode we talk with Paul Wolff Mitchell, of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, about the skull measurements of 19th century founding father of the American School of Anthropology, Samuel George Morton. Morton used his skull measurements to provide scientific support for polygenism (multiple origins of human races), slavery, and the ranking of races (as we discussed in earlier episodes: Monogenism and Polygenism and Morton and Gould--Polygeny Side B). Mitchell has analyzed Morton’s handwritten notes in an attempt to shed further light on the issue of Morton’s bias which was initially raised by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1978 article (Gould, 1978) and elaborated in his book, The Mismeasure of Man (Gould, 1981, 1996). Mitchell uses Morton’s contemporary, Friedrich Tiedemann, as an exemplar of someone using cranial measurements to come to the exact opposite conclusion, that the races were equal (Tiedemann, 1836). Here are some resources about this controversy: Publications by Mitchell: Mitchell, P. W. (2018). The fault in his seeds: Lost notes to the case of bias in Samuel George Morton’s cranial race science. Plos Biology, 16(10), e2007008. Mitchell, P. W., & Michael, J. S. (2019). Bias, Brains, and Skulls: Tracing the Legacy of Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth-Century Works of Samuel George Morton and Friedrich Tiedemann. In E. August, B. R. Furrow, K. Richter, K. K. Thomason, D. Costello, J. S. Michael, P. W. Mitchell, & U. Bettray (Eds.), Embodied Difference: Divergent Bodies in Public Discourse (pp. 77-98). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Gould’s paper and book: Gould, S. J. (1978). Morton's ranking of races by cranial capacity. Unconscious manipulation of data may be a scientific norm. Science, 200(4341), 503-509. doi:10.1126/science.347573 Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: WW Norton. Gould, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man (Revised and Expanded ed.): WW Norton & Company. Other reconsiderations of the Morton and Gould argument: Kaplan, J. M., Pigliucci, M., & Banta, J. A. (2015). Gould on Morton, Redux: What can the debate reveal about the limits of data? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 52, 22-31. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsc.2015.01.001 Lewis, J. E., DeGusta, D., Meyer, M. R., Monge, J. M., Mann, A. E., & Holloway, R. L. (2011). The mismeasure of science: Stephen Jay Gould versus Samuel George Morton on skulls and bias. PLoS Biol, 9(6), e1001071. Michael, J. S. (1988). A New Look at Morton's Craniological Research. Current Anthropology, 29(2), 349-354. doi:10.1086/203646 Michael, J. S. (2012, June 14, 2013). Personal Commentary on Morton & Gould Part 1. Retrieved from http://michael1988.com/?page_id=424 Weisberg, M. (2014). Remeasuring man. Evolution & Development, 16(3), 166-178. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ede.12077 Morton’s work: Morton, S. G. (1844). Crania Aegyptiaca: or, Observations on Egyptian ethnography, derived from anatomy, history, and the monuments (Vol. 9): J. Pennington. Morton, S. G. (1849). Catalogue of Skulls of Man and the Inferior Animals, in the Collection of Samuel George Morton: Merrihew & Thompson, printers. Morton, S. G., & Combe, G. (1839). Crania Americana; or, a comparative view of the skulls of various aboriginal nations of North and South America: to which is prefixed an essay on the varieties of the human species: Philadelphia: J. Dobson; London: Simpkin, Marshall. Tiedemann on skulls: Tiedemann, F. (1836). XXIII. On the Brain of the Negro, Compared with That of the European and the Orang-Outang. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London(126), 497-527. Our episode about Thugee Skulls and phrenology: Phrenology, Race, and Thug Heads
39 minutes | 6 months ago
In this episode, Jo invites Alan Goodman back to review Isabel Wilkerson’s book, Caste. They provide some context from a science and history perspective on both caste and race. Here’s the source that Alan refers to: Egorova, Y. (2009). De/geneticizing Caste: Population Genetic Research in South Asia. Science as Culture, 18(4), 417-434. doi:10.1080/09505430902806975 Speaking of Race, Race in India playlist: https://soundcloud.com/user-88955638/sets/race-in-india Wilkerson, I. (2020). Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents. New York: Random House.
31 minutes | 6 months ago
Redlining, Health, and Voting
Did you know that how your neighborhood was assessed by a government agency over 70 years ago had an impact on your health and even your voting rights today? In this episode we talk about how the Home Owners Loan Corporation gave systemic racism in the U.S. a huge boost with their neighborhood ratings from the 1930s to the 1950s! Script: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/redlining_health_and_voting.pdf Sources: AP-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. (9/23/2020). Growing Disapproval of Protests Against Police. Retrieved from https://apnorc.org/?post_type=project&p=2761 Herndon, A. W. (9/26/2020). How a Pledge to Dismantle the Minneapolis Police Collapsed. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2S0hDRJ Hoffman, J.S., V. Shandas, and N. Pendleton (1/13/2020). The Effects of Historical Housing Policies on Resident Exposure to Intra-Urban Heat; A Study of 108 US Urban Areas. Climate 8(12). Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2225-1154/8/1/12/pdf https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/article-abstract/2747697 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1476-069X-8-50 Jones, B. (5/26/2020). Coronavirus Death Toll is Heavily Concentrated in Democratic Congressional Districts. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/05/26/coronavirus-death-toll-is-heavily-concentrated-in-democratic-congressional-districts/ Kolbert, E. (6/20/2016). Drawing the Line–How redistricting turned America from blue to red. The New Yorker. Retrieved from: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/06/27/ratfcked-the-influence-of-redistricting Kranish, M. and R. O’Harrow. (1/23/2016). Inside the Government’s Racial Bias Case Against Donald Trump’s Company, and How He Fought It. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/inside-the-governments-racial-bias-case-against-donald-trumps-company-and-how-he-fought-it/2016/01/23/fb90163e-bfbe-11e5-bcda-62a36b394160_story.html Lockwood, B. (6/16/2020). The History of Redlining. Retrieved from: https://www.thoughtco.com/redlining-definition-4157858 McGhee F. (9/5/2018). The most important Housing Law Passed in 1968 Wasn’t the Fair Housing Act. Retrieved from https://shelterforce.org/2018/09/05/the-most-important-housing-law-passed-in-1968-wasnt-the-fair-housing-act/ Plumer, B., N. Popovich, and B. Palmer. (8/24/2020). How Decades of Racist Housing Policy Left Neighborhoods Sweltering. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/08/24/climate/racism-redlining-cities-global-warming.html Remigio, Richard V., et al. (2019). Association of extreme heat events with hospital admission or mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease. JAMA Network Open 2.8. Retrieved from: Richardson, J. et al. National Community Reinvestment Coalition: Redlining and Neighborhood Health. Retrieved from: https://ncrc.org/holc-health/ Schifano, Patrizia, et al. (2009). Susceptibility to heat wave-related mortality: a follow-up study of a cohort of elderly in Rome. Environmental Health 8.1: 50. Retrieved from: Stone, B., Hess, J. J., & Frumkin, H. (2010). Urban form and extreme heat events: are sprawling cities more vulnerable to climate change than compact cities?. Environmental health perspectives, 118(10), 1425-1428. Retrieved from: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/ehp.0901879 Wines, M. (6/27/2019). What is Gerrymandering? And How Does it Work? Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/what-is-gerrymandering.html Wong, K. V., Paddon, A., & Jimenez, A. (2013). Review of world urban heat islands: Many linked to increased mortality. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 135(2). Retrieved from: https://asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/energyresources/article-abstract/135/2/022101/365904/Review-of-World-Urban-Heat-Islands-Many-Linked-to?redirectedFrom=fulltext
23 minutes | 8 months ago
SOS interview of Gravlee and Mulligan
In this episode, we share an interview with Clarence Gravlee and Connie Mulligan, who talk about their cutting-edge research on racism and its effects on our genes (yes, you heard that right!). They show how experiences of racism have direct effects on the telomeres (the caps on the ends of our DNA) that control aging and cell death, literally wearing down our bodies over time and contributing to many of the race-based health disparities we see today. This work is right in line with our race and health mini-series, as well as our recent episode on racism and the COVID pandemic. Resources: Our miniseries on race and health: https://soundcloud.com/user-88955638/sets/race-and-health Our recent episode on racism and the COVID pandemic: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/racism-in-the-pandemic Rej, Gravlee, and Mulligan’s article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajhb.23375 The Sausage of Science podcast: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/human-biology-association-2/sausage-of-science
9 minutes | 8 months ago
What is Speaking of Race
A brief discussion of what Speaking of Race is all about. Transcript and links: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/what_is_speaking_of_race.pdf Episodes mentioned: What you don’t see when you don’t look https://youtu.be/1pwQuN4AM7k THE PROTESTS ABOUT THE DEATH OF GEORGE FLOYD http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/the-protests-about-the-death-of-george-floyd THE BEGINNING OF RACE http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/the-beginning-of-race RACE IN BRAZIL http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/august-26th-2018 RACISM AND BLACK BODIES http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/racism-and-black-bodies RACE IN INDIA, PART 1 http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/race-in-india-part-1 RACE IN INDIA, PART 2 http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/july-15th-2018 MONOGENISM AND POLYGENISM http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/monogenism-and-polygenism RACE AND THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/race-and-the-human-genome-project RACE AND ATHLETICS http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/race-and-athletics DNA ANCESTRY TESTING AND RACE http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/dna-ancestry-testing-and-race SCIENTIFIC RACISM http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/podcast/scientific-racism
1 minutes | 8 months ago
Sausage of Science Promo
A short suggestion about a sister-podcast on anthropology and science.
35 minutes | 9 months ago
In this episode we discuss a speaker who came to UA in Fall 2019 to give a presentation about the evolution of human diversity—but it was actually a presentation of scientific racism in evolutionary clothing. Erik and Jim were part of a panel that rebutted his presentation and we share our experience with Jo. For a transcript and sources, click here: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/scientific_racism.pdf Low quality (especially the audio) videos of our presentations are available: Jim’s presentation: https://www.facebook.com/ALLELEseries/videos/1011372252533221/ Erik’s presentation: https://www.facebook.com/ALLELEseries/videos/955242114852838/.
40 minutes | a year ago
The Protests about the Death of George Floyd
In this episode we discuss issues surrounding the demonstrations in the wake of the murder of George Floyd. Resources Crowdsourced spreadsheet documenting police violence: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1YmZeSxpz52qT-10tkCjWOwOGkQqle7Wd1P7ZM1wMW0E/ DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility: Why it's so hard for white people to talk about racism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. John Oliver’s Last Week Tonight (June 7, 2020): https://youtu.be/Wf4cea5oObY Samuel Sinyangwe’s organization, Campaign Zero: https://www.joincampaignzero.org/ Samuel Sinyangwe’s twitter thread on research-based solutions to stop police violence: https://twitter.com/samswey/status/1180655701271732224 Wekker, G. (2016). White innocence: Paradoxes of colonialism and race: Duke University Press. White People, Read This Before You Text Your Black Friends: https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/tomiobaro/how-white-people-can-help
33 minutes | a year ago
American Anthropological Association Project on Race
In this episode we talk with two past presidents of the American Anthropological Association who played key roles in presenting the public face of American anthropology with regard to race over the past several decades: Yolanda Moses and Alan Goodman. They discuss the outreach efforts of the AAA. Some Resources: Blog posts on Sapiens: Five posts on race from 2016 and 2017 by Yolanda Moses: https://www.sapiens.org/authors/yolanda-moses/ Goodman’s post from Mar 2020: https://www.sapiens.org/body/is-race-real/ Goodman, Alan H., Yolanda T. Moses, and Joseph L. Jones. (2020) Race: Are We So Different? 2nd Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Moses, Y. T. (1989). Black Women in Academe. Issues and Strategies. In F. Foundation (Ed.). Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges, Project on the Status and Education of Women. Project website: Race: Are We So Different?
27 minutes | a year ago
Racism in the Pandemic
In this episode we give our take on the rapidly growing information about racial disparities in the face of the current pandemic. Some resources: https://www.propublica.org/article/early-data-shows-african-americans-have-contracted-and-died-of-coronavirus-at-an-alarming-rate https://theconversation.com/covid-19-is-hitting-black-and-poor-communities-the-hardest-underscoring-fault-lines-in-access-and-care-for-those-on-margins-135615 https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-21/covid-19-divides-u-s-society-by-race-class-and-age https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-19/trump-says-coronavirus-could-have-been-stopped-in-china https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/09/world/coronavirus-equipment-rich-poor.html https://www.npr.org/2020/04/04/826780041/as-coronavirus-cases-rise-navajo-nation-tries-to-get-ahead-of-pandemic https://www.npr.org/2020/04/08/829575332/how-is-the-coronavirus-affecting-black-americans https://www.npr.org/2020/04/10/831480462/misinformation-distrust-may-contribute-to-black-americans-covid-19-deaths https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/04/10/832026070/u-s-surgeon-general-people-of-color-socially-predisposed-to-coronavirus-exposure https://the1a.org/segments/coronavirus-death-toll-racial-disparities/ Racism in the time of COVID-19 https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-time-of-covid-19/ Fang, L., Karakiulakis, G., & Roth, M. (2020). Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine, 8, e21.
19 minutes | a year ago
White Space and "Reverse Racism"
In this episode we continue our discussion with the sociologist, David Embrick. Here, we talk first about white public space including academia and anthropology as well as museums, where Dr. Embrick has looked at this issue. Next we talk about reverse racism as illustrated by Dr. Embrick’s work on the imbalance of racial slurs. Resources: Embrick, D. G., & Henricks, K. (2013). Discursive colorlines at work: How epithets and stereotypes are racially unequal. Symbolic Interaction, 36(2), 197-215. Embrick, David G., Simón Weffer, and Silvia Dómínguez. (2019). White sanctuaries: race and place in art museums. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 39(11/12), 995-1009. Feagin, J. (2013). Systemic racism: A theory of oppression. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Zuberi, T., & Bonilla-Silva, E. (2008). White logic, white methods: Racism and methodology. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
27 minutes | a year ago
Structural Racism and diversity ideology
In this episode we interview the sociologist, David Embrick, about structural and institutional racism and diversity ideology. If you’d like to learn more about the relationship of structural racism and other inequities to the impact of the COVID pandemic, listen to this podcast from This Anthropological Life: https://anchor.fm/thisanthrolife/episodes/A-Virus-Without-Borders-The-Design-of-Public-Health--Inequality--and-Hope-ebot2d. Resources: Bonilla-Silva, E. (1997). Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62(3), 465-480. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2006). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Bonilla-Silva, E., & Embrick, D. G. (2006). Racism without racists: “Killing me softly” with color blindness. In C. A. Rossatto, R. L. Allen, & M. Pruyn (Eds.), Reinventing critical pedagogy (pp. 21-34). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility: Why it's so hard for white people to talk about racism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Embrick, David G. (2011). The Diversity Ideology in the Business World: A New Oppression for a New Age. Critical Sociology, 37(5), 541–556. Embrick, David G. (2018). "Diversity: Good for Maintaining the Status Quo, Not So Much for Real Progressive Change." In Challenging the Status Quo. Brill, pp. 1-9. Feagin, J. R. (2013). The White Racial Frame: Centuries of Racial Framing and Counter-Framing. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Kendi, I. X. (2019). How to be an Antiracist. New York: One World/Ballantine. Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1986). Racial formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1980s. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Rossatto, C. A., Allen, R. L., & Pruyn, M. (2006). Reinventing Critical Pedagogy: Widening the Circle of Anti-Oppression Education. Abingdon, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
40 minutes | a year ago
Phrenology, race, and Thug heads
We finally fulfill our promise to talk about the seven thug skulls that arrived at the Edinburgh Phrenological Society in 1833. We also discuss how phrenology has been used to bolster biological ideas about race. Transcript: https://110557873-374249423321902787.preview.editmysite.com/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/thug_heads.pdf
26 minutes | a year ago
Herb Lewis interview about Franz Boas and race
In this episode we interviewed an expert on Franz Boas, Herb Lewis, to learn more about how Boas developed his ideas about race and how he acted on them throughout his life. Program notes available at: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/lewis-boas_interview.pdf
38 minutes | 2 years ago
Race And Health, part 3
In this episode we explore the history of racial ideas about blood pressure. We focus on problems with many genetic explanations of racial differences seen in hypertension in the U.S. Finally we discuss some of the better alternative explanations for racial differences based on the history of racism in America.
40 minutes | 2 years ago
Race And Health, part 2
In this episode we take on the notion that sickle cell is Black disease and show that it is a genetic condition that has been selected for in areas of life-threatening malaria. Transcript: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/race_and_health_part_2.pdf
35 minutes | 2 years ago
Race And Health Part 1
In this episode we begin the long and sordid saga of how race is entangled with health and medicine, and along the way you’ll find out how a rail-riding hobo took over two issues of the Journal of the American Economic Association in 1896 with 329 pages that shaped ideas about African American health for decades. Sources are available in the transcript at: http://speakingofrace.ua.edu/uploads/1/1/0/5/110557873/race_and_health_part_1.pdf.
31 minutes | 2 years ago
Race in India, part 3: Projit Mukharji interview
Remember when we talked about race science and caste in India last summer? Here, we return to that thread with historian of science Projit Mukharji, whose work traces the ways scientific racism has persisted in India since the end of the colonial period and right up into the present. Once again, we find that scientific racism is not just a Euro-American phenomenon! And (spoiler alert) it hasn’t gone away! Some sources (unfortunately, these are all behind pay-walls, but you can see the abstracts of the articles): Mukharji, Projit. 2014. From Serosocial to Sanguinary Identities: Caste, Transnational Race Science and the shifting metonymies of Blood Group B, India c. 1918–1960. The Indian Economic & Social History Review. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0019464614525711 —2015. Profiling the Profiloscope: Facialization of Race Technologies and the Rise of Biometric Nationalism in Inter-War British India. History and Technology 31(4): 376-96. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07341512.2015.1127459 —2017. Vernacularizing the Body: Informational Egalitarianism, Hindu Divine Design, and Race in Physiology Schoolbooks, Bengal 1859–1877. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 91(3): 554-85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29081433 —2017. The Bengali Pharaoh: Upper-Caste Aryanism, Pan-Egyptianism, and the Contested History of Biometric Nationalism in Twentieth-Century Bengal. Comparative Studies in Society and History 59(2): 446-76. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/comparative-studies-in-society-and-history/article/bengali-pharaoh-uppercaste-aryanism-panegyptianism-and-the-contested-history-of-biometric-nationalism-in-twentiethcentury-bengal/37417F64E39C96FED199F428E3EEF870
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