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11 minutes | Jan 24, 2020
2.13. Legal and Ethical Issues: Copyright and Fair Use in Learning Design
2.13. Legal and Ethical Issues: Copyright and Fair Use in Learning DesignLearning Objective for Section 2.13.: Explain the importance of legal and ethical issues related to instructional designUsing any copyrighted work for learning and training purposes required permission from the copyright owner, i.e. the publisher of the work or the employer of the work’s author, or the author/creator of the work. As stated and shared in the AOE #3 episode on the topic 3.10. Copyright and Fair Use Laws.Here is the recap of what US laws state about the use of materials for a class, training, or learning: Copyright Law: protects the expression of ideas but not the ideas themselves in some tangible form e.g. book, magazine, video, film, etc. Although the exact words in a book may be copyrighted the ideas in the book are not. READ: Copyright, eLearning, and Creativity via eLearning IndustryFair Use: is a legal doctrine that promotes freedom of expression by permitting the unlicensed use of copyright-protected works in certain circumstances. Section 107 of the US Copyright Act provides the statutory framework for determining whether something is a fair use and identifies certain types of uses—such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research—as examples of activities that may qualify as fair use.” When considering if objects or materials are under fair use, you should examine the four requirements: The purpose is for nonprofit, noncommercial educational use (typical cases) The nature of the copyrighted work is consistent with the proposed use The amount of the original work involved some small uses can be considered an infringement, that is, a small portion involves the core idea in the copyrighted works The effect of using the copyrighted work is not likely to deprive the copyright holder of sales or market interest Title 17, US Code of Federal Regulations, Section 201 There are also “Works Made for Hire” where the employer or the other person for who was hired for the work was authoring training instruments for an employer or organization as training materials to be designated their copyright. RESOURCE: US Code: Title 17. Copyright via Cornell Law SchoolRESOURCE: Writing Copyright Statements for eLearningLegal and Ethical Issues Related to Copyright and Fair UseThings that cannot be protected by copyright include: ideas, processes, procedures, methods of operation, concepts, principles, or discoveries; however, a tangible description, explanation or illustration of these may be copyrighted.In the United States, registering the work with the US Copyright Office provides legal protection and redress in state and federal courts; a copyright holder has the exclusive right to: Reproduce the copyrighted work Prepare derivative works (adaption) based on the copyrighted work Distribute copies of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending Perform the copyrighted work publicly, in the case of motion pictures or other audiovisual works; and Display the copyrighted work publicly, in the case of audio or visual work. Exclusive rights are qualified by the fair use privilege, which allows others to use copyrighted material in a reasonable manner without the copyright owner’s consent. Although legal guidelines exist, fair use is difficult legal concept to understand.Bottom line: obtain written consent from the copyright holder to use the materials that are copyrighted, even for an educational program OR find training materials that allow for fair use or attribution for your learning/training materials. When in doubt ASK SOMEONE!Open Up: Creative Comments and Open Education Resources Open Up: OER for Higher Teaching, Learning, and Support Services includes The National Forum Open Licensing Toolkit [PDF] To Share Your Work, You Gotta Put a @CreativeCommons License On It!
7 minutes | Jan 24, 2020
2.12. Individual & Organizational Influences on Learning and Change
2.12. Individual & Organizational Influences on Learning and ChangeLearning Objective for Section 2.12.: Identify individual and social factors that influence an adult’s motivation to learn and change. Change might be a business decision; however transitions at work often have emotional and political effects on any organization and their employees. Motivating factors is one of the most critical elements to consider while implementing change related to learning. If designing learning is part of a change initiative, organizational transition, or method for managing change in a company, talent development practitioners should be aware of how any change could create challenges to learning solutions, i.e. resistance, turnover, and failure to institutionalize the change.READ: 3 Instructional Design Strategies for SMART Change It is critical to involve the change agents during during the learning planning stage to minimize potential issues and consider issues that might occur at all levels. Empowering employees to make choices can help them accept change and ensure this transition is smooth. Some incentives might come from management rewards for acceptance or additional support to help move others along in the transition.Influences on Learning: How Instructional Design Can Impact ChangeMotivation is one of the main influences on people’s willingness to learn. When change comes, sometimes a learning initiative to understand this transition is needed. Two ways to influence this willingness to learn is to: Energize learners’ motivation to learn Use whatever motivation they already have Training success happens when the new skills and knowledge are applied on the job.To encourage a change in behavior or performance, learners need to realize the learning outcomes.This could be through other learner testimonials, sharing the implications of not gaining this skill, what's in it for me (WIIFM), and identify the knowledge gap might do for their career trajectory. You might also be able to introduce employees to informal learning and technologies (e.g. wikis, blogs, communities of practice, etc.). Other ways to motivate learners by: Building anticipation of outcomes through authentic contexts Making the context appealing (e.g. sound, music, novelty, suspense, humor, etc.) Providing a challenge and adjusting the challenge levels to match different learners’ levels of readiness Providing intrinsic feedback More information about support organization and individual influences on learning, more will be discussed in AOE #10 Change Management, Section 10.11. Motivation Theory.Are you a learning designer or talent development professional who has developed training/learning solutions for change? How'd it go?
8 minutes | Jan 23, 2020
2.11. Learning Technologies
2.11. Learning TechnologiesLearning Objective for Section 2.11.: List at least three strategies for keeping up-to-date regarding learning technologiesSimilar to the previous episode 2.10. about Selecting Delivery Options and Media, it will be critical to make the most appropriate and effective choices for technologies for learning. There are a number of options for methods, media, and ways to deliver training/learning solutions; however, not all technologies will be suitable for your employees/professionals. Not all training settings or organizational set ups will require high-tech solutions for learning, and it will be context and learning participant dependent as well.Knowledge of Learning Technologies and Support SystemsIt is critical to get to know a few things, with regards to technology, which include: Understand the learning technologies currently in use within the organization & the potential capability to expand Collaborate and cultivate relationships with the company’s information technology professionals to help you identify software/hardware options available for training Explore and educate yourself on emerging technologies used in learning and training environments in industry and education -- specifically applications, use, and practical strategies for learning development/design Here are a few suggestions of where and how to stay connected to learning technologies within talent development from the CPLP training system: Join the Association for Talent Development (ATD) https://www.td.org/ Read TD magazine (https://www.td.org/td-magazine) and Learning Circuits Attend ATD conferences or events https://www.td.org/events Search topics https://www.td.org/topics/learning-technologies Attend ATD webinars -- often free or openly available + archived webcasts Join other associations like: The eLearning Guild https://www.elearningguild.com/ United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA) https://usdla.org/ Society for Applied Learning Technology (SALT) https://www.salt.org/ And beyond these organizations, there are a number of professional associations, organizations, and networked communities to access, share, and find learning technologies for training and instructional design in K-12, higher ed, etc. -- here are my “go to” to get you started: Online Learning Consortium https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/ Association for Educational Communications & Technology (AECT) https://www.aect.org/ EDUCAUSE https://www.educause.edu/ ISTE https://www.iste.org/ WCET https://wcet.wiche.edu/ Association for Learning Technology (ALT) https://www.alt.ac.uk/ Association for Professional, Continuing & Online Education (UPCEA) https://upcea.edu/ Professional and Organizational Development (POD) Network https://podnetwork.org/ My personal learning network on blogs, Twitter, LinkedIn, LinkedIn Groups, podcasts, and more! Ahead, we’ll talk more about learning technologies in AOE #6 Managing Learning Programs, Section 6.2. Learning Technologies and Support Systems -- stay tuned! How do you stay connected to learning technologies for training and instructional design? Let me know! Share your suggestions on what to read, watch, follow, or connect to online to continue my knowledge on the topic.
8 minutes | Jan 23, 2020
2.10. Delivery Options and Media
2.10. Delivery Options and MediaLearning Objective for Section 2.10.: List at least three delivery options or media available for delivering learning solutionsDelivery Option ConsiderationsTo design effective learning talent development professionals must understand what is possible, the variety of mediums, and the current technologies or media that can support training/learning solutions. To determine the most effective delivery option and types of media, it will be critical to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each medium has for learning. Selection of learning delivery method and media also will be aligned to the given scope constraints, time to design and deliver learning, cost, geographic location of learners, baseline knowledge of learners, technical skills to be taught, and so on. Here are a few things to consider for learning delivery options: Online and mobile learning Performance support systems Classroom training (face-to-face) Blended learning Games and simulation Self-directed learning On-the-job training (e.g. coaching, mentoring, etc.) THROWBACK: #TBT You may recall that selecting training/learning delivery options and media can also be found in AOE #3 Training Delivery; Section 3.5. Various Delivery Options (link to this podcast episode and resources)What Exactly is Flipped Learning?Flipping the learning experiences is also known as “inverting” learning or taking a “pedagogy-first” approach to instruction. This is where the learning materials (for a course, training session, or workshop) are introduced outside of the designated class meeting session. The time spent either in-person or during an asynchronous online meeting is re-purposed for inquiry, application, and assessment in order to better meet the needs of individual learners.The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P from the Flipped Learning Network1. F: Flexible Environment2. L: Learning Culture3. I: Intentional Content4. P: Professional EducatorRead more at: https://flippedlearning.org/definition-of-flipped-learning/BONUS RESOURCES: Chapter 9: Choosing and using media in education: the SECTIONS model by Tony Bates Learners needs! Review: 9.2 Students Checklist for Selecting Technology for Learning How do you make your decisions about media, mediums, and delivery options for instructional design?
10 minutes | Jan 22, 2020
2.3. Individual Learning Preferences
2.3. Individual Learning PreferencesLearning Objectives for Section 2.3.: Explain why learning styles is a myth Define learning modalities Learning ModalitiesLearning modalities refers to how information is received from the environment into our brains through our five senses: hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, and touching.The Learning Style Concept is a Neuromyth: learnings styles that try to measure differences in individuals' learning have been debunked and are a myth. You might know a few of these assessments or instruments to classify learning styles: Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory or VAK (visual, auditory, kinesthetic). Researchers have indicated that there is no evidence for the validity of learning styles or that it leads to optimal learning if identified. Additionally, investing in these learning style assessments/inventories could lead learners to develop self-limiting beliefs about themselves that could be a self-fulfilling prophecy.Models that Incorporate Learning Preference: some evidence-based theories and models that focus on individual learning preferences include (which a few were mentioned on the previous episode in the AOE #2 Instructional Design; Section 2.2. Learning Theories): Multiple intelligences (Howard Gardner) Brain-based approaches to learning (Ned Herrmann) Factors affecting the speed at which adults learn Accelerated learning techniques Modules (Patricia Cross) Characteristics of Adult Learners (CAL) : framework developed to describe why adults participate in learning; motivations and deterrents to adult learning Chain-of-Response (COR) : is a model that asserts that adult participation in learning is not an isolated act but results from a complex series of personal responses to internal and external variables that either encourage or discourage participation in learning The Design Value of Learning ModalitiesAlthough we don’t use learning style preferences, there is something for offering training and learning solutions for a variety of learning modalities and techniques to resonate with all learners. Here are a few helpful reminders of why multiple modes for learning are critical from Design for How People Learn (Dirkesen, 2012): Everyone does not learn the same way. Designers should vary the way learning is approached depending on the subject, topic, or focus of the training. Except for any accessibility needs or physical impairments, most learners use senses predominantly visual, auditory, and tactile ways to learn. Senses & Design ConsiderationsSeeing providing written directions when possible enhancing presentations with visuals, graphics, illustrations, diagrams, props, or flowcharts helping participants visualize a process using demonstrations, or role plays Hearing providing spoken directions using discussions, debates, panels, or interviews planning for buzz groups, small group discussion, or various discussion group configurations Touching providing hands on practice with the actual equipment, forms, or tools engaging learners in experiential learning activities or solving problems allowing time for active review and practice methods We need to design learning beyond our own expectations or personal preferences for learning design solutions -- it needs to be relevant for on-the-job outcomes and performance.REVIEW: Designing Multimodal Approaches for Learning How are you designing with multiple modes and learners in mind?
21 minutes | Jan 22, 2020
2.2. Learning Theories
AOE 2. Instructional Design; 2.2. Learning TheoriesLearning Objectives for Section 2.2.: Summarize the role adult learning theories play in the design of learning solutions Discuss Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Discuss Malcom Knowles’ concept of andragogy and its importance to instructional design Explain the difference between teaching and facilitating learning Describe the individual characteristics of learning, including the roles that motivation, goals, experience, and culture play. Define the various theories of learning and memory, including behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Describe the concept of the learning brain model and how it relates to adult learning List six external and environmental influences that affect an adult’s ability to learn Explain Howard Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligence theory The Role of Adult Learning Theories in Instructional DesignLearning theories explain why some training techniques may work better than others; and this helps talent development professionals design effective learning solutions. Trainers help improve performance by facilitating learning in a traditional or virtual classroom, one-on-one, or on-the-job in an organization. Knowledge of adult learning theories help talent development professionals to: Consider the learning strategies, tactics, experiences, and learning environments that support the theories Relate the design of materials to the differences in the ways adults learn Explain why training is designed as it is Assess designs to ensure that it meets the needs of learners Outline how learning theory influences knowledge acquisition, retention, and application of information. Theories of Learning and Memory:This is the HOW learners internalize information and identifies ways to increase the successful transfer of learning for retention. Essentially it will be to understand how humans access, treat, and retrieve information with these three classic learning theories: Behaviorism: concerned with the relationship between stimuli and response to predict and control behavior; advantages: Establishes objectives that are clear and unmistakable Ensures behavioral practice, not just theory Works best for helping learners to acquire behavioral skills Is highly specific Is observable (learners know when they have succeeded) Cognitivism: focuses on what is happening to the learning internally; trying to “understand understanding” specifically how people perceive, think, remember, learn, solve problems, and attend to one stimulus over another; advantages: Treats people as adults Focuses on thinking skills Emphasizes foundational knowledge Builds a base of information, concepts, and rules Provides the rationale upon which action is based Constructivism: the focus is on how learners internalize what they learn; advantages: Is discovery orient Centers on learner understanding Builds learner understanding with real-world relevance Allows for differences in learner backgrounds and experiences Has facilitators guide learners through the learning process READ MORE: Epistemology and theories of learning; Objectivism and behaviorism; Cognitivism and Constructivism from Chapter 2: The nature of knowledge and implications for teaching by Tony BatesMaslow’s HIerarchy of Needs: explains the foundations of motivation and offer a logical leveling from physiological to psychological needs: Physiological Safety Belongingness Esteem Self-Actualization READ: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ExplainedMalcom Knowles’s Adult Learning, or Andragogy: the way adults learn are different from children; often more self-directed, internally motivated, and ready to learn; unlike pedagogy (traditional style of teaching based on lecturing or a didactic model), this is learner-centered rather than content-centred or instructor-led.READ: Andragogy - Adult Learning Theory (Knowles)Andragogy (Knowles, 1984): contends that five key principles affect the ways adults learn: Self-concept of the learner: Prior experience of the learner Readiness to learn Orientation to learning Motivation to learn Individual Characteristics of Learning: adults learn only when they need or want to learn, no matter how good the talent development professional or training experience is -- here are the four key characteristics of learning: Motivation Goals Experience Culture Approaches to Motivating Learners: 4 foundational principles to motivate adult learners are: Inclusion Attitude Meaning Competence How Culture May Influence Learning: this might impact the training experience and ability for participants to learn, specifically related to these differences: Verbal and nonverbal messages that don’t match Reluctance to speak Limited eye contact Proximity to others Power distance Questions the learning designer should ask before developing training: What cultural norms or values might exist? How do they differ among all learners? What implications do these norms or values have in designing the content? What adjustments need to be made in the design? Adult Development and Age: Does our learning change or capacity to learn change as we age? Not necessarily. Neuroplasticity, the ability of our brains to change and adapt, does not decline with age. We are able to continually learn, adapt, and grow -- this includes building new neural connections to receive, process, and transmit information. Confronting ideas that are contrary to one’s own helps to stimulate the development of new neural pathways -- keep adult learning programs going!The Whole Brain Thinking Model: we use the whole brain (both sides/hemispheres) to process information. These are complementary, not competitive to make a decision, analyze a problem, compare solutions, and support long-term learning. The left side of the brain is associated with time orientation; sequential processing of events; language; logic; mathematics; analysis; and awareness of cause and effect. The right side of the brain specializing in the following functions: emotion; intuition; visual-spatial orientation; music; art, imagery, and pattern awareness; synthesis of information; simultaneous processing of events; timelessness; and divergent thinking.This model of whole brain thinking was analyzed by the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) developed by Herrmann (1988) to study how individuals' thinking preferences, or brain dominance, affect the way we work, learn, and communicate. The HBDI classifies learners in terms of thinking in four modes or quadrants of the brain:A. Rational/Intellectual: logical, quantitative, analytical, technical factual B. Lower-Left Limbic = Practical/Instinctive: sequential, controlled, detailed, organized, conservativeC. Upper-Right Cerebral = Experimental/Intellectual: metaphoric, integrative, visual, synthesizing, conceptualD. Lower-Right Limbic = Relational/Instinctive: emotional, musical, humanistic, expressive, sensoryLEARN MORE: Understanding the Herrmann Whole Brain® modelExternal and Environmental Influences: these factors can impact or influence how professionals/employees learn, like in more informal training environments or a relaxed atmosphere. Different aspects can impact motivation to learn and the transfer of training specifically these external or environmental factors: stress, time pressures, job status, learning environment, peers, supervisor, family, and/or company conditions.Multiple Intelligences: Howard Gardner (1983) has suggested that there are multiple ways to measure and account for intelligence; he developed the Multiple Intelligence Theory which states that there's no single way in which everyone thinks and learns. Gardner created a list of intelligences that includes: Linguistic/Verbal Logical/Mathematical Spatial/Visual Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential Emotional All of these intelligences will impact how people process information when learning. Gardner believes that most people are comfortable in three to four of these intelligences and avoid the others. He also defines intelligence as a measurable aptitude that people use to create and solve problems and valued by the culture; however, intelligence is not fixed.BONUS READ: Multiple Intelligences Theory: Widely Used, Yet Misunderstood via EdutopiaDifference Between Teaching and Facilitating Learning: teaching is the “teller” of information whereas facilitating is the “guide” of bringing learning to participants to they understand concepts, skills, and information. Teaching is pedagogical vs. facilitating is more andragogical. Teaching methods might be more lectures, presentations, webinars, etc. vs. facilitating might involve brainstorming, small-group discussion, role play, case studies, debates, teach backs and other interactive ways to learn.A couple of books I mentioned for learning theories ISD from the Ground Up, 4th Ed. by Chuck Hodell (Chapter 14) Teaching in a Digital Age, 2nd Ed. by Tony Bates (Chapter 2)
13 minutes | Jan 21, 2020
AOE #2: Instructional Design; 2.1 Driving Strategy for Business
The Area of Expertise (AOE) #2: Instructional Design refers to the “designing, creating, and developing informal and formal learning solutions to meet organizational needs; analyzing and selecting the most appropriate strategy, methodologies, and technologies to maximize the learning experience and impact.” This section is weighted 13-14% of the exam; 20-21 questionsA skilled workforce is one that has a competitive advantage that enables the organization to adapt, change, grow, and innovate. Talent development professionals who are savvy instructional designers (IDs) contribute directly to the business strategy and organizational goals. In AOE #2, we will focus on the following key knowledge areas: Business strategy, drivers, or needs associated with possible learning solutions Need assessment approaches Research methods, including informational scanning, data gathering, and analysis Content knowledge or techniques to elicit content from subject matter experts Learning theories Instructional design theory and process Various instructional methods Various delivery options and media Existing and emerging learning technologies and support systems Individual learning modalities Individual, group, and organizational differences that influence learning and motivation Assessment methods and formats Legal and ethical issues related to instructional design Crossover in this chapter will be with AOE #3 Training Delivery and AOE #6: Managing Learning Programs, specifically the section on Legal, Regulatory, and Ethical Requirements. Roles in this area might be called: instructional designer, course designers, program designer, designer, instructional developer, eLearning specialist, or curriculum development specialist. There are so many more names--see my presentation “Who Designs Learning Today?” https://www.slideshare.net/LauraPasquini/who-is-designing-learning-today A few books I might refer to or mention in this area of expertise: ISD from the Ground Up, 4th Ed. by Chuck Hodell Teaching in a Digital Age, 2nd Ed. by Tony Bates Training and Development for Dummies by Elaine Biech e-Learning and the Science of Instruction by Ruth Colving Clark and Richard Mayer Project Management for Instructional Designers by Wiley et al. https://pm4id.org/ 2.1. Business Strategy and DriversLearning Objective: Describe the value and purpose of understanding the business drivers that identify a need prior to designing the learning. Like other areas of your organization, talent development requires investment for your employees to encourage more production, sales, output, customer satisfaction, and more! If your professionals are being developed and engaged, it will increase the bottom line. Aligning goals and objectives of the company to instructional design, will allow you to justify the need for talent development professionals within your organization.READ: Instructional Design Strategy: What Is Its Role in eLearning Design Link Talent Development and Instructional Design to Business DriversBusiness drivers are internal and external forces that direct and influence the organization’s strategy, goals, business needs , and performance goals. Business drivers are often resources, processes, or conditions that are essential for growth and success of a company. The learning design and goals should be linked to these business drivers and strategies that might include: Reducing expenses Generating revenue Building employee engagement Design to Meet Business RequirementsSimilar to the AOE #1 Performance Improvement (specifically Section 1.3. Business, Performance, and Gap Analysis and Section 1.4. Root Cause Analysis), you want the instructional designer (ID) to focus on designing learning that develops objectives, materials, instructional methods, timing, and participation that is related to focused business needs and requirements. This would include assessing the session length, cost of development, media needs, learning activities, the environment to learn, how to have participants practice skills, and more. To meet these business requirements, you will need to ensure that participants are prepared to learn and the ID meet the goal expectations by: Ensuring the design incorporates steps prior to the learning experience that prepare participants for what will happen Clarify with management what the participants are expected to do differently or better, and how this aligns to business goals Identify what action management will take to support changes after the learning event, such a reinforcement and feedback Design support in the form of both hard copy and online materials that can be used after the learning event Ensure That participants know how their efforts will affect business goals Be certain participants know what is expected of them and how they will be held accountable Clearly identify the trainer’s role in support and follow-up Be sure participants know how they can find assistance following the learning event Design to Achieve StrategyIDs and talent development professionals needs to understand the business to align learning with organizational goals. Practitioners developing learning and training can upgrade skills and knowledge for strategy by: Providing services that support the organization’s business strategy Learning to measure results or relating results to other internal measures Becoming educated and educating others in strategic planning Finding opportunities to serve on cross functional teams Reviewing relevant documentation e.g. strategy/corporate plans Working with leaders in other departments to learn about their problems and needs Learning more about the industry by reading journals or checking the internet Learning about the competition and how has the competitive edge Staying abreast of the changes the organization is facing and anticipate the kind of support it will need Determining how the organization is viewed externally and what customers say Developing specific measurements for all courses or programs Framing questions to be certain that all issues were considered in linking training to organizational business strategy and drivers Note: More will be discussed in AOE #6 Managing Learning Programs; Section 6.1: Business Model Drivers, and Competitive Position in an upcoming episode
13 minutes | Jan 21, 2020
7.4. Individual & Organizational Assessment Tools
AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.4. Individual and Organizational Assessment ToolsLearning Objectives: List two types of multi-rater feedback tools, and define each Discuss the key differences between personality inventory instruments and personality tests Identify the purpose and benefits of career profiles Define the purpose of leadership assessments, and list two types of leadership assessments Summarize the issues associated with administering assessments, including validity, reliability, fairness, special accommodations, and legal issues surrounding testing Human Resource Audits: is one component of succession planning system, which build s on the identification of successors and addresses employee mobility with regards to various positions; this audit would identify is employees should stay at their current position or move to other positions and it offers strategies to help designate pools of qualified employees based on their skills and abilities. Managers often conduct an HR audit by reviewing their direct reports to determine: Time in current position Performance Readiness for advancement Potential to move to a new position Development required Plans for succession and movement within an organization allow pathways into leadership and identify other opportunities where professionals might also move into new functional roles or to grow in a particular new occupational area.You want to work with and involve employees in the process of succession planning based on their performance appraisals or other means of providing viable, dependable, employee skill information. This might also happen with reporting in progress on projects; 1:1 meetings; quarterly reviews;snapshot of work with clients or billable hours.READ: A Beginner’s Guide to Succession PlanningHuman Resource Assessment and AuditsMulti-Rater Feedback: Multiple reviewers offer feedback as a process with at least two levels of management to review employees and agree on their candidacy for specific positions. This type of evaluation might occur or be warranted under these conditions: Major judgements or experience levels are weak There is a shortage of identified talent The organizational culture supports structures 360-Degree Feedback Evaluation: is based on opinions and recommendations from superiors, direct reports, peers, and internal and external customers on how a person performs in any number of behavioral areas; offers a more well-rounded view of performance/workAssessment Centers: might include oral exercises, counseling simulations, problem-analysis exercises, interview simulations, role-play exercises, written report, or analysis exercises for individuals or groups of employees; may be used for selection or development purposesPersonality Inventory Instruments: offers a picture of a person’s personality type and indicates personality preferences. Examples (of many):DiSC Personality Profile: is a behavior assessment tool based on the work on William Marston that provides four dimensional model and four profiles: dominance (direct and decisive), influence (optimistic and outgoing), steadiness (sympathetic and cooperative), and conscientiousness (concerned and correct). Learn more at: https://www.discprofile.com/what-is-disc/overview/ Free DiSC Assessment: https://www.onlinepersonalitytests.org/disc/ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): is an instrument that helps determine personality type based on preferences for extraversion or introversion, intuiting or sensing, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving; used in career development and team building. Learn more at: https://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/ Free MBTI or Jungian Personality Test:https://psychcentral.com/quizzes/personality/start.php Strong Interest Inventory: E.K. Strong self assessment tool to look at people's interests (likes and dislikes) at work; Also in the ONET Online: https://www.onetonline.org/ Learn more at: https://www.thebalancecareers.com/the-strong-interest-inventory-526173 Holland Code (RIASEC) Test - Interest Inventory: https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/RIASEC/ My Next Move https://www.mynextmove.org/ “Tell us what you like to do” section to self-assessCareer Profiles: include a resume, summary statement, personal work history, skills, and competencies; a tool to map current professional progress in a position and plan for career changes.Leadership Assessments: help organizations assess developmental needs of current and future leaders at all levels; This might help with career planning, professional development, and understanding baseline needs with role-playing, simulations, etc. to identify needs for improving leadership skills like decision-making, delegating, coaching, etc.Administrative ConsiderationsIt is important to consider the following issues when you are administering any of these inventories, assessments or using these instruments as a talent development professional: Validity Reliability Fairness Special Accommodations Legal Issues Surrounding Testing
10 minutes | Dec 11, 2019
7.8. Ethical Standards and Legal Issues
AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.8. Ethical Standards and Legal IssuesHow are your employment practices (e.g. hiring, promotion, demotion, etc.) fair, legal, and just? FYI: This episode is US-centric and refers to talent management practices in the United States.Learning Objective: Identify and explain the implications of hiring or promotion decisions when using psychological and personality testsUnderstanding the legal ramifications of all aspects of the talent management cycle ensures compliance with applicable local, regional, national, etc. regulations and laws. In the US, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is the governing body that dispenses regulations to govern the hiring, promotion, and discharge of employees, as well as training guidance. The EEOC guidelines apply to tests and other selection process for hiring, promoting, or demoting employees, and also decisions for training, transfer, or any other impacts for employees.READ: Equal Employment Opportunity https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/discrimination via US Department of LaborREAD: What is the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)? Hiring Practices and TestingIf you have ever applied for a job, it often requires a number of application sections and online processes to submit your application and complete the job application process. In the United States, there are a number of layers as you enter into the job or candidate portal to complete a single job application. Beyond uploading your resume, CV, cover letter, etc. detailing your work experience, you might also be required to enter your work eligibility, age (above 18), accessibility needs or accommodations, non-compete disclosures, previous employment at the organization, and other related qualifications or certifications for a particular role. In the United states, the EEOC will also ask candidates questions about their gender, sexual orientation, military service, disability, and ethnic/racial backgrounds. Use of any testing in hiring , promotion or retention is an established practice. Tests must confirm that employer’s test criteria are directly related to job performance and not a protected group. These are guided by the EEOC regulations to ensure there is not discrimination in hiring. Other practical examples of this equal opportunity considerations look at the lawful selection of individuals to complete talent development programs, such as : Required training prior to job entry Selecting employees to attend internal and external programs Using tests in training as measures of job performance and retention Making job assignments based on performance in the training program It is up to the organization, the employer, to bear the burden of proof to demonstrate specific requirements are based on job performance. US federal court will evaluate any job requirements for job relatedness through the human resource management and development cycle. More in AOE 6. Managing Learning Programs, Section 6.8.Are you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect:Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/
17 minutes | Dec 11, 2019
7.7. Maximizing Workplace Diversity
AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.7. Maximizing Workplace DiversityDiversity is more that "good for the bottom line" -- it improves our organizations functions, creativity, productivity, and awareness to new ideas and innovative approaches for how we work and learn.Learning Objectives: Compare and contrast high-context and low-context cultures, and discuss how communication differs when dealing with each of these Explain considerations regarding personal space and workplace diversity training List two strategies that are used to create diverse workforce Provide examples of the needs of the Baby Boomer generation versus Generation X, Y, and Z and how this may have an effect on career planning programs Identify strategies that could be used to facilitate inclusion in multiracial, multigenerational environments READ: Workplace Diversity Through Recruitment: A Step-By-Step Guide via IdealCultural Awareness: Training material sand software for global use need to be designed from the start with multilingual and multicultural participants in mind. Culture arises from shared behaviors, values, and beliefs shaped by such factors as language, religion, cuisine, music, etc. Culture influences the value society puts on individualism versus group action, tolerance for uncertainty, a willingness to take risks, and ways of interacting with a trainer and peers for professional learning, which impacts other factors such as communication and interaction for talent development. BOOK: Developing Localization Friendly ELearning by Kieran McBrien (2015)Power Distance Differences: high-power cultures emphasize more traditional teach-student relations -- here are the differences:High Power Distance | Low Power DistanceFormal relationships | Informal relationshipsHigh dependence | Low dependenceTeacher oriented | Learner orientedImpersonal | Highly personalStatus emphasis | Equality emphasisFixed approach | Variable approachConformity | ExperimentationSome features of culture, such as language and dress, are immediately apparent. Other features, such as attitudes about age, personal space, work, time, and reactions to authority, may be subtle.Gender Equality: In the US, after the Civil Rights Active of 1964, American corporations still did not not deal with gender discrimination in the workplace -- many claims were made each year revealing that women in particular still experience discrimination in pay and advancement. This is SLOWLY being worked on to deal with gender discrimination and pay inequity issues -- but we’re still not there. The importance of gender varies by country, nationality, culture, and more. BONUS LISTENS: The #InVinoFab Podcast https://invinofab.transistor.fm/ these specific episodes: Ep. 19: Mind the Gender Gap - Overworked & Underpaid Ep. 36: Beyond Diversity & Inclusion Training Ep. 40: Gender Equality in Higher Ed Work Race Awareness: Implementing diversity and awareness can only help the bottom line. The CPLP guide on this is out of date -- those organizations who do not embrace or consider any diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts for any aspect of talent management will not contribute to enhance individual or organizational missions, visions, or goals. Identifying racial or ethical differences are key to understanding how individuals interact, communicate, and engage in work. That’s my “off script” insights to what I read -- bringing awareness to racial issues and viewpoints allows the organization to benefit by: Attracting and retaining the best and brightest candidates from all cultures/backgrounds Increases the market share and creates a satisfied customer base with changing demographics Employees learn to communicative with and truly understand one another which lets them be more innovative, responsive, and productive Expansion of job candidate pools and criteria for hiring and promoting employees with fair opportunities Increase employee engagement to increase employee retention Diversity fosters a range of different perspectives and results in better decisions, innovative product development, better customer service, and expansion into new markets An inclusive culture develops more flexible & broader-thinking leaders for a global economy Overall organizational performance improves when people are encouraged to overcome cultural misunderstanding and appreciate differences Employees feel more valued and tend to be more productive Generational Differences: There are 4-5 generations at work together, depending on where you are working in the world (see 7.3. Career Development Theories & Approaches); that being said talent development professionals want to strive to raise workplace awareness of the diversity and differences for how these different generations approach and perceive work. This can prevent conflict and encourage cooperation in an organization.Personal Space: This is a cultural item -- space between individuals varies depending on the cultural context. This matters for training, mentoring, coaching, and other interactions for talent management/development. Mentioned before in an earlier podcast episode, Proxemics, is the relationship of people’s positions in space. Hall (1969) defined four spatial relationships: Intimate: 18 inches; family & partners Personal: 18 inches to 4 feet; family & friends Social: 4-12 feet; co-workers & social acquaintances Public: 12 feet+; speakers and entertainers Disability Awareness: In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 has a number of implications for training and learning design for people who need access. The ADA prohibits discrimination in employment, public services, transportation, public accommodations, and telecommunication services. This includes aspects of employment such as job applications, selection processes, on-the-job-training, wage increases, benefits, and employer-sponsored social activities. Employers must provide reasonable accommodations for professionals to access and perform the essential functions for the designated job. Implications for Multiple Languages: For difference learning experiences, it might be helpful to offer training and learning materials in multiple languages depending on the workplace setting, geographic location, or needs within the professional group. These will help to add to learning and talent development: Accent and linguistics Gross translation errors Nuance errors Facilitation of Inclusion: it is important to include new cultural ideas or identities for various groups who are part of your talent management plan. In looking at your training analysis and planning processes for employee development programs, HR functions and top management may develop a strategy to interview and hire for differences to broaden diversity in the organization. Additionally, it is important to facilitate inclusion of employees by building awareness and celebrating difference cultures and groups. Differences across cultures and groups offer the opportunity to look at new approaches, create awareness, model new ways, target solutions, and offer training opportunities for other employees.READ: Workplace Diversity and Inclusion Gets Innovative via SHRMAre you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect:Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/
9 minutes | Dec 11, 2019
7.6. Talent Management Software Solutions
AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.6. Talent Management Software SolutionsWhere and how do you organize and manage all of the data around talent development? Technology solutions, of course!Learning Objectives: Categorize the technological capabilities of talent management software List strategies for keeping up-to-date with emerging technologies Describe steps to evaluate new technologies The opportunities and affordances for talent management systems (TMS) encourage data collection for career development, coaching, feedback, and professional learning related to employee competencies, training effectiveness, onboarding practices, employees’ interests, performance management, and succession planning. EXAMPLE: Talent Management Platforms for 2019 via Solutions ReviewLEARN MORE: Find Out More about Talent Management SoftwareThis data and information can identify learning and/or performance gaps to outline what is needed in the workforce or organization. TMS can also help identify if/when training is needed, and keep track for training/learning records for employees related to industry reports, books, research, and evidence from the talent development field. If you are preparing to invest in or upgrade a TMS or software, consider the following four steps when you evaluate a product/system: Determine what functionality the organization needs in its talent management software. Determine what each supplier provides. What data and information can be inputed & exported from this TMS? Talk with peers about their experiences working with different suppliers & do your research Ask selected suppliers to provide a demo or pilot period - ask for RFPs, examples, & experiences READ: Why Talent Management Is an Important Business Strategy to Develop via The Balance CareersWhat are your "must have" requirements for a talent management system? What features are requirements for your TMS technology solution?Are you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect:Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/
13 minutes | Dec 11, 2019
7.5. Talent Management Analytics
AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.5. Talent Management AnalyticsIf you are not collecting and analyzing your talent development data -- your missing out on key performance indicators and understanding how they meet individual and organizational goals. Learning Objectives: Outline learner data available through talent management databases List the methods for capturing learner data Compare the methods of analyzing learner data to be used in decision-making Talent Management Analytics describes the use of talent data and information to improve business performance, predict turnover, measure the impact of leadership development programs, and determine the effectiveness of onboarding programs or just-in-time training solutions. The data available will be based on the tools being used and could include basic statistics, such as the number of learners attending training, or correlations between course content and performance. If collected and measured well, talent analytics can inform and offer direction to employees to support their career development paths and offer insights for the business goals. The impact of learning and other talent development offerings may impact to the organization’s bottom line -- but how can you know if you are not measuring this.“Only 21% of HR leaders believe their organizations are effective at using talent data to inform business decisions.” ~Gartner (2019)READ: Talent Analytics: How HR can leverage analytics to inform talent and business decisions via GartnerLearner data can be captured in a variety of ways to measure and assess talent development. Whether its an end of workshop survey, online course questionnaire, focus group, or 1:1 follow up with a manager, here are a few common methods for analyzing learner data: Correlation analysis Multiple regression analysis Significance testing BONUS LISTEN/READ: Competing on Talent Analytics via Harvard Business ReviewREPORT: 2019 Top 125 training and development organizations via T&D MagazineBook referenced in this episode: Employee Training & Development, 7th Ed. by Raymond Noe (2017)Are you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect: Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/ Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/
23 minutes | Dec 10, 2019
7.3. Career Development Theories & Approaches
AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.3. Career Development Theories and ApproachesLearning Objectives: Define the balance between personal assessment and the market Discuss Williamson’s trait-and-factor theory and how it relates to career development Define the Super developmental framework Summarize each of the personality or typology theories, including Roe’s theory, Holland’s occupational congruency model, and psychodynamic theory, and compare their value for the individual employee Describe Krumboltz’s behavioral theory Discuss Schein’s career anchors theory Describe how generational issues affect career development List development programs for key roles and jobs in the organization Balance Between Personal Assessment and the Market: To determine the ideal future at work, in terms of our own career plan, is a process of considering different concepts and theories -- this is known as career development. Zandy B. Leibowitz (1986) sees career as a “vision must be realistic and provide a strong link between the present situation and future possibilities… real needs, structures, and cultures.” The goal is to offer a sense of direction and rationale for these career approaches and theories to measure actual results in your career journey.Trait-Factor Counseling: is a cognitive career counseling approach based on the theory of individual differences. Known as the talent-matching approach, it assumes that each person has a unique pattern of relatively stable traits, interests, abilities, and characteristics that can be identified as an occupational profile. This approach originated in the early 1900’s and is associated strongly with vocational theorists Frank Parsons and E.G. WIlliamson. This theory is often criticized throughout the industry; as it refers to a trait characteristic as an item that can be measured through testing and a factor characteristic are required for successful job performance Traits include: intelligence, ambition, aptitude, self esteem; factors are statistical representation of these traits Trait-factor counseling criticism: describes matching people to jobs as “square-peg, square-hole” approach BONUS LISTEN: Satya Nadella: Don’t Be Brilliant, Be Curious episode from the Hello Monday podcastSuper’s Developmental Framework: D.E. Super’s career development theory includes the idea that our careers move through five distinct phases from childhood through adulthood; the choice of an occupation is highly influenced by each person’s self-image and how this self-image maps to people already in a particular occupation. 5 stages/phases: Growth Stage Exploratory Stage Establishment Stage Maintenance Stage Decline Stage READ/LEARN MORE: Super's Theory via the Government of NZ Careers SitePersonality or Typology Theory: some career theories match individuals to occupations based on their personality, strengths, interests, values, characteristics, and more. For example:Roe’s Theory of Occupation: divides occupations into eight groups of service and six decision levels; can be used to assess individuals to determine best career choice based on interests.READ MORE: Anne Roe’s Theory on Occupational ChoiceThis is similar to Holland’s Occupational Congruency Model that seeks to match individual sto the best career choice through interviews that deal with six types of work environments known as RIASEC: Realistic: physical strength, motor connection, concrete problem-solving Investigative: ideas and thoughts; intellectual activity Artistic: less personal interaction; self-expression Social: Interaction with others Enterprising: use of verbal and social skills Conventional: rules and regulations READ MORE: Holland’s Theory of Career Choice and YouAssess: Holland Code (RIASEC) Test: https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/RIASEC/ Behavioral Theory: suggests that career-related behavior can be broken down into parts to better understand our own behavior at work. Here are a couple of theorists and their examples/models:Behavior Career Counseling: is a scientifically precise approach to career decision making that leverages concepts from psychology; this approach notes that career-related behavior (e.g. a job interview) results from events from our past; the goal is to understand that behavior to move forward in your career decisions)Krumboltz’s Model: is about planned happenstance, which makes it okay to not always plan because unplanned events could lead to good careers. He uses the DECIDES model as a decision-making process with seven steps: Define the problem Establish an action plan Clarify values Identify alternatives Discover probably outcomes Eliminate alternatives systematically Start action READ: Krumboltz’s TheoryCareer Anchors Theory (Edgar Schein, 1961): A career anchor is one’s self-concept about one’s talents and abilities, basic values, motives, and needs as they relate to your own career; this theory was developed to determine how careers in management advanced and how well individuals fared with their employers (12 year study; n=200); self-awareness and personal insight contributes to your career choices; The basic drivers of these career decisions are we related to these tenants: talents, motives, values -- into these eight career anchors: Technical/functional competence General managerial competence Autonomy/independence Security/stability Entrepreneurial capability Service/dedication to a cause Pure challenge Lifestyle READ MORE: What are the Career Anchors?Issues Associated with Career Planning TheoriesThere are a few common issues that challenge career planning for talent development in organizations to ensure companies their financial return-on-investment (ROI) -- this includes balancing the needs of the organization goals and professional objectives, such as:I. Organizational Need & Human Capital: describes the collective knowledge, skills, competencies, and values of the people in an organization; investment in employee development hopefully contributes to the company’s bottom-line/goals; More of this is discussed in AOE #5: Evaluating Learning Impact; Section 5.1.7. The Phillips ROI MethodologyII. Approaches to Work & Different Generations: In the US and Canada we have five generations working side by side these days in our organizations. Globally, there are currently 4 working generations: Baby Boomers: 1946–1964 Generation X: 1965–1980 Millennials: 1981-1996 Generation Z: After 1996 For career development in the generations their might be different approaches, For example, the value of mentoring programs will be critical to support learning.This can be traditional mentoring (senior professional mentoring a junior professional) or peer mentoring on learning a new skill, adjusting to new technologies, institutional knowledge, applied experience, etc. READ: Generations-Demographic Trends in Population & Workforce: Quick Take BONUS READ: Which generation speaks to you?III. Multicultural Influences: most organizations bring a rich diversity of multicultural and cultural issues that cannot be ignored when it comes to career development. There may be differences in customs, practices, or expectations depending on where and who you are working with.BONUS READ: Multicultural Career Assessment Models e.g. Healy’s Career Appraisal ModelDevelopment Approaches for Key Roles and Jobs (Actions: Values) Action learning Academic assignments Advanced degree education Assessment centers Coaching Committee and task force involvement Cross-functional job rotations Instructing others Job shadowing Loaned executive program Management training courses Mentoring Professional associations Sabbaticals Are you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect: Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/ Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/
17 minutes | Dec 10, 2019
7.2. Workforce Planning & Talent Acquisition Approaches
AOE 7: Integrated Talent Management: 7.2. Workforce Planning & Talent Acquisition ApproachesLearning Objectives: Identify ways to assess current talent capabilities Outline a means to estimate future demand Examine factors relevant to hiring internally versus externally Summarize the relationship between workforce planning and strategic planning List five job analysis methods and three Competency Model elements Define the role of HR in workforce planning Describe the roles of TD professionals in workforce planning Current Capability Assessment: How do talent professionals match current skills to the organizations needs now and in the future? A capability assessment can help organizations and HR establish a baseline of understanding for comparing against future personnel requirements by looking at performance from these three perspectives: What basic skills are needed just to maintain the status quo and keep the organization running? What Skills are needed to improve the organization? What are the new business drivers on the horizon, and what skills are needed to meet those future needs? How Do You Estimate Future Demand? Talent development professionals need to determine the potential gaps and be cognizant of workforce supply and demand projections; this can be done by conducting an environmental scan, looking at workforce projections for the business (products or services in the organization), and being creative with how this workforce plan is developed, e.g. hiring temporary or P/T appointments, targeted recruitment planning, ways to reduce a surplus of talent or relocate professionals, etc. BONUS READ: Workforce Planning via NIH Office of Human ResourcesInternal vs. External Acquisition: These are the questions talent development professionals ask for their work in an organization to determine this choice/decision due to their participation in employee development programs. Factors considered when choosing to develop talent internally, includes: Will the position be difficult to fill? Is an internal selection strategically important? Are there potential internal candidates? Does the position have a steep learning curve? Does the position require continually and institutional knowledge/ Do internal learning opportunities exist? Internal promotions are great for employee morale On the other hand, you can consider outside talent options if: A change is desirable The open position signals a new direction for the organization and requires a fresh perspective Limited internal capacity exists Organization is experiencing high growth External hire could bring key relationships and intellectual capital Outside hires can be motivation and inspiring from a new energy Relationship Between Workforce Planning & Strategic Planning: Strategic planning is a process of systematically organizing the future, where HR will rely on past experiences to inform talent hires ahead. This helps all employees focus their attention on an organization's desired outcomes using four separate steps: Formulation Development Implementation Evaluation WATCH: Trends in Workforce Planning: Aubrey Wiete via ATD Urgent need: with good economy and increased employment demand will require you to have The advent of data and technology: merging informed talent decisions integrated with technology It’s bigger than HR: it’s not just about recruitment or HR; data from across the talent lifecycle will be informed from other places e.g. finance, marketing, external trends Workforce plan: is a design that identifies the skill and knowledge gaps between today’s talent and the needs of the future as well as the actions required to meet the needs; it emanates from the organization's strategic plan and offers managers a framework for making staffing decisions based on an organization's mission, strategic plan, budget, and desired competenciesRESOURCE: Workforce Planning Job Aid [DOWNLOAD] via ATDJob Analysis & Competency Modeling: A job analysis can be completed in a few different ways depending on the time available, access to subject matter experts, and the level of detail needed. Here are a few job analysis methods:*InterviewSurvey or Questionnaire Observation Focus Group Work Diary or Log *More instruments might be found in AOE #2: Instructional Design; 2.5.2. Types of Data-Collection Methods -- check out that episode, if you have not already heard it.From a job analysis you identify the requirements of work, create a thorough and complete job description. Competencies will focus more on the skills, knowledge, and attitudes (KSAs) of those employees who are performing the jobs at a high level proficiency, specials apply to pintoin unique characteristics of successful employees that are typically mapped to a competency model. Ideally, talent development professionals will want to develop training that targets those competencies to create a sustainable workforce. Often these competencies guide the needed learning by the organization and often competency models include these 3 areas: Executive: KSAs & behaviors required to create vision, lead, strategize, influence, plan negotiate, & recognize talent Managerial or Supervisory: KSAs & behaviors required to supervise, direct, counsel, discipline, coach, organize, and development people. Functional: KSAs & behaviors required to perform specific tasks Role of TD in Workforce Planning: from education, training, employee/management development, executive leadership programs, organizational learning/development, and human performance technology -- the purpose is to improve performance by developing human expertise. This might be part of the succession planning process -- to identify and develop internal employees who will likely fill key business leadership positions in the organization -- and proactively planning for personnel demands/needs/shifts. This could include employ ability of current talent, preparing professionals for the future, etc.Other roles for Workforce Planning in TD: To support some of this workforce planning there are a few prominent roles that TD professionals play as HR partners, including: Analyst Implementer Evaluator Business Partner Are you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect: Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/ Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/
20 minutes | Dec 9, 2019
7.1. Integrated Talent Management: Key Components of Talent Management Systems
Areas of expertise (AOE) 7: Integrated Talent Management“Builds an organization’s culture, engagement, capability, and capacity through the implementation and integration of talent acquisition, employee development, retention, and deployment processes, and ensures that these processes are aligned to organizational goals” (ASTD, 2013) -- in short, integrated talent management ensures organizations have the right people, with the right skills, in the right jobs, at the right time -- this means thinking about human resources, organizational development, talent development, more to bring a company's goals and missions forward to enhance their products, services, and output. Key knowledge areas or AOEs for section 7 include: Key components of talent management systems Workforce planning and talent acquisition approaches Career development theories and approaches Individual and organizational assessment tools Talent management analytics New and emerging talent management software solutions Approaches to maximize workplace diversity Legal and ethical issues related to integrated talent management READ: 10 Ways to Build a Culture of Continuous Learning by Joanne Wells via ATDBooks read and referenced for AOE #7: What Works in Talent Development: Starting a Talent Development Program by Elaine Biech (2018) Employee Training & Development, 7th Ed. by Raymond Noe (2017) ASTD Handbook: The Definitive Reference for Training & Development, 2nd Ed. Edited by Elaine Biech (2014) Training and Development for Dummies by Elaine Biech (2015) 7.1. Key Components of Talent Management SystemsTalent Management Systems: What systems and processes organize how talent is managed within your organization? What are some critical factors and components that should be part of the talent management system? How can talent development professionals help to overcome some of the “mystery” in managing employees/talent? (AOE 7. Integrated Talent Management; 7.1. Key Components of Talent Management Systems)Talent Management (Noe, 2017, p. 26): defines it as “the systematic, planned, and strategic effort by a company to use bundles of human resource management practices, including acquiring and assessing employees, learning and development, performance management, and compensation to attract, retain, develop, and motivate highly skilled employees and managers”; due to changes and evolution of our working roles, occupational trends, and needs within our jobs, there are needs for developing skills, obtaining knowledge, and apply concepts within our career journeys - shifts in emerging technologies, generational differences, leadership development, etc. READ: Building a Talent Development Structure via ATD Research (November, 2015)This report organizes talent development into 15 primary functions and 24 secondary functions ARCHIVED: Building a Talent Development Structure Without Borders Webcast via ATD (2015)Learning Objectives: Describe two approaches to workforce planning and talent acquisition Outline performance management elements necessary for successful talent management Define the types of learning opportunities available for employee development Identify viable succession plan actions Explain the role of compensation and rewards in talent management Relate organizational strength to engagement and retention strategy Workforce Planning & Talent Acquisition Approaches: to ensure organizations have the human capability and capacity to meet strategic challenges you need to plan for and acquire the right talent. Here are the two approaches: Targeted and Reactive: Conduct a gap analysis and determine the root cause or why the gap exists, select a potential talent solution, consider the costs to develop internal talent or acquire external talent -- get buy in for the solution and implement the solution, i.e. recruitment to attract the right talent and new professionals. A Talent Shortage Lens: planning ahead to be proactive by these steps: Clarify the business drivers, strategies and talent needed to support both Research current and future labor markets (internal and external) for the talent supply and demand Model future workforce scenarios to provide input for strategies aligned in the talent pool and business Outline expected talent gaps beyond the obvious (e.g. skills or numbers) with critical insights on how to close these gaps Develop a comprehensive, holistic, and measurable workforce plan to close the gaps before they limit the organizations’ ability to execute the business strategy Performance Management: through strategy and process you will establish integrated expectations, developing capabilities, and ways to improve performance (e.g. retirements, new hires, emerging technologies, or new strategic directions) will have TD professionals management performance by: Clarifying responsibilities Establishing accountability for goals, standards, and expectations Providing learning opportunities and building capabilities Providing resources and required support for TD Developing action plans Reviewing progress Providing feedback and coaching Taking corrective action when necessary Employee Development: leverages formal and informal learning opportunities to ensure that professionals have the right skills for their current jobs and are developing skills and knowledge for future career opportunities and industry needs; 70-75% of work-related learning happens informally outside a classroom or a course, including coaching, reading, mentoring, self-study, social media or internet surfing. Other ways you can think about training and education programs: Internal or External Training On-The-Job Training Self-Development and Self-Study Online Learning Job Rotation Leader and Manager Programs: this is often part of succession planning for managerial and supervisory training; part of an integrated talent management program; this may include mentoring programs (or sponsorship); action learning (potential leaders study their own actions and experience to improve performance); and coaching programs. The most effective development program support these three key tenets: Each person is responsible for his or her own development Executives are responsible for guiding & supporting the development of their employees The organization is responsible for providing opportunities for the growth of all Succession Planning: Two key questions regarding talent management: Do we have qualified people ready to fill key positions now and grow the business in the next 3-5 years (short-term emphasis)? Will we have enough qualified candidates ready in 5-10 years to fill key positions (long-term emphasis)? Succession planning is how you identify and develop potential talent for key positions in an organization through systematic evaluation process to fill these critical roles, and helping to: Identify and analyze critical roles Identify growth, decline, and other changes affecting critical roles Identify potential attrition from critical roles Identify high-potential individuals Select talent for certain roles Determine success program structure Assess talent against job and personal requirements Assist with creation of individual development plans Encourage management discussions Monitor attrition and candidate progress Use outside information to fine tune plans This is a living process; succession planning requires regular reviews Compensation and Rewards: this can be a key component for any job candidate and important factor for retaining talent; this might include medical, vacation, retirement, stock options and more; work-life balance or flexible working schedules, access to technology, ability to work remotely, childcare, or other benefits.Engagement and Retention: is a desire to create an environment where employees have the tools, resources, and professional opportunities to develop skills and fulfill their career goals; long-term career growth and opportunity strategies, employees are empowered to reach their full potential and add value to the organization. Seven key drivers of engagement: Trust and integrity Nature of the job Line of sight between employee and performance Career growth opportunities Pride in the company Co-workers/team members Employee development Interrelationships Among Talent Management Components: Through effective talent management, employees develop skills to work more efficiently and effectively, produce sustainable growth, grow professionally, and help the organization attain its goals. Success is all about planning for and acquiring talent, ensuring that people are performing to meet and exceed expectations, developing skills to move the organization forward, and ensuring a people of talent for the future.
11 minutes | Dec 8, 2019
BONUS: Why Are You Studying For the CPLP?
Why bother getting the CPLP credential? What exactly are you studying for? Why is it important?Are you studying for the CPLP now? Let me know and let's connect: Podcast web space: https://techknowtools.com/learnperform-mixtape/ Twitter: @laurapasquiniLInkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/laurapasquini/Chapter 3: Importance of Certification (Kippen, Son Lee, & Toister, 2014) Understand the value of certification and the Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) Identify the value to the employer, credential holders, and Training & Development (T&D) profession Experience from employer and candidates Reference: Biech, E. (2014). ASTD handbook: The definitive reference for training & development, 2nd Edition. Alexandra, VA: American Society for Training and Development.What is CPLP certification?: involves the comprehensive evaluation of skills that are measured against industry standards, professional associations, and other industry-wide credentials for T&D -- with the following requirements for CPLP certification eligibility: Knowledge Exam: 150 multiple choice on the 10 Areas of Expertise (AOE) + the Global Mindset foundational competency Skills Assessment Exam: of 100 questions multiple choice that focuses on application of skills from ONE (1) AOE of your choice: Training Delivery Instructional Design Managing Learning Programs Recertification: CPLP is valid for 3 years and requires recertification points to maintain the CPLP status, e.g. professional conferences, training, leadership, etc. More about the CPLP from this past episode: https://share.transistor.fm/s/debbd68eWhy is the CPLP certification so important? Increased individual performance Increased employee performance Improved organizational results Increased relevance of talent development (TD) Benefits to hiring managers, employers, and credential holders It offers credibility, continuous learning, and a community of professionals to connect within TD READ: Joining Community, Gaining Respect Through a Credential by Patty Gaul via ATDATD RESOURCES: Why Should I get Certified? Countdown to the CPLP Calendar: Here are a few steps to developing your own study plan for the Knowledge and Skills Application exams as you prepare for certification: Assess your time resources - where will you find 80 hours to study before the first exam? What time can you dedicate to preparing for the CPLP? Assess your study resources - what will you use to prepare? Do you have this ASTD handbook, the CPLP Study System? Or will you attend an in-person or online workshop to prepare for certification? Set a deadline - break up what you want to know and how you plan to learn for each AOE for the CPLP exams -- what’s your “to study” list and how will you organize this Plot your schedule backwards - map out what you will study when on your calendar and COMMIT to these study sessions; identify some room for flexibility and change in this schedule should things come at work, home, etc. Predict the future - how does this CPLP certification fit into your future professional goals, life plans, or career objectives? What life/work events might occur while you are studying and preparing over the next few months? Be prepared! Stick to the plan - once you have organized how, when, and where you will study be accountable to this certification preparation plan; make this a priority for you!
20 minutes | Nov 24, 2019
3.8. Organizational/Cultural Differences in Learning Preferences & Communication
3.8. Organizational or Cultural Differences in Learning Preferences and CommunicationCultural differences can impact the training delivery and how the learner receives the information. Around the globe, organizations and their employees think, work, act, learn, and lead in different ways -- these vary based on national, ethnic, and corporate cultures.Learning Objectives: Discuss how language, speech, environmental, and psychological factors can be barriers to communication during training delivery, & provide one example related to each factor Explain how culture may affect and require a modification in training delivery Barriers to Communication: to prepare for intercultural communication talent development professionals are recommended to know that there are differences when providing training. If left unattended to, cultural differences can cause misunderstandings, conflict, and poor learner interactions or involvement of participants in a training session. Culture as an “individual’s patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting” -- how do people interact with one another? What are some attributes and characteristics of teams, groups, or organizations you work with?READ: Understanding and Developing Organizational Culture via SHRMLanguage and Speech: we might all speak the same language, but there are so many nuances, differences, and misunderstandings that can occur. From accents to how we pronounce words.There might also be differences with pace or linguistics for how language is used. Other challenges might come from gross translation errors or nuance errors.Environment: relates to a culture’s existing technological level and physical environment; this is primarily based on knowledge rather than culturally intrinsic values. Examples of this include: Personal space: some folks hug, while others might give more space or greet with a handshake Technology: some countries use less technology based on their values to live without; unlike the always needing to be connected or tethered to a device like the Western part of the world. Psychology: the way thoughts and ideas are process may also vary from different points of view globally, here are four ways cultures think and express themselves: Social organization Contexting Authority Concept Nonverbal Behavior: Did you know that 65% of a message's meaning is conveyed through nonverbal behavior? It’s true This could be from eye contact to a laugh. Nonverbal behaviors include both your appearance (first impressions, artifacts, and physical traits) and body language (posture and how we talk, stand, walk, sit, etc. Types of body language include: Emblems, e.g. Ok or peace sign Illustrators, e.g. hand gestures with expressive talk Affect displays, e.g. emoting your feelings Regulators, e.g. nodding, shrugging Adaptors, e.g. fidgeting, scratching, ticks Patterns of eye contact include -- eye movements and their meaning: Cognitive: associated with thinking & processing new information Monitoring: associated with understanding Regulatory: associated with responding to the communicator for what’s being said Expressive: associated w/ the emotional responses of the people communicating (emo) READ: Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace via The Balance CareersProxemic Zones and Difference Between Cultures: a term coined by anthropologist Edward T. Hall in 1977 defining the study of the cultural, behavioral and sociological aspects of spatial distances between individuals; this might vary by country and culture. For example, the four types of distance between adults in the US are: intimate (18 inches) personal (18 inches to 4 feet) social (four to 12 feet) public (more than 12 feet) Some people feel threatened when others are too close to them -- but they also find people standoffish if the are too far apart. Fun fact: friend co-workers tend to sit beside each other at a table, where mere acquaintances or enemies in a work setting might sit opposite one another. (More to come on this topic AOE 11. Global Mindset)READ: How to Create an Effective Cross-Cultural Training Program via SHRMBasic Communication: information theory came from scientists’ interested in electronic communication systems (you're very welcome), it’s also called communication theory, computer mediated communication, human information processing, etc. just to name a few. Listening is one activity in a relational process -- speaking is the other. Together they make a dyadic (two-part) system -- so here are some common concepts and terms talent development professionals and researchers use in this area: Environment: conditions or circumstances in which a system operates Information: something that reduces uncertainty Message: something that is communicated Source: the sender of a message Noise: something that hinders the flow of information between a source and receiver Receiver: person/device that gets a message in communications & processes it through the filter of the mind Feedback: a communication that gives people information about the effect of their behavior Barriers to Listening: Listening -- it’s a challenge. Sure you can hear, but are you actually listening and understanding what is being communicated? An average person talks at about 140 words/minute and a listener can understand about 280-560 words/minute. That being said, most of us can think three times faster than the person sending the message. However, 15% of the spoken word is lost in a training situation where the speaker talks fast, is rushed with delivery or speeds up because they are anxious to get the presentation over with. Other communication problems may include: Reluctant to convey the message Hasn’t understood the message Is misinformed or lying Has speech difficulties Has an accent different than that of the listener Lacks the vocabulary to explain current matter or there’s jargon the listener can’t decode Uses nonverbal communication that doesn’t support his or her words Fails to immediately state why the message may be of interest to the listener That being said this listener issues may include: Might be preoccupied and not shift their internal dialog to the external conversation Be distracted by reactions to the speaker's appearance Be impatient/interrupt because they are busy or believes the message is a waste of time Lack the vocabulary or understanding to interpret the message Have impaired hearing or something is blocking the message Preferences to Formal Vs. Informal Approaches Informal Learning Formal Learning Individual Differences in Learning PreferencesThere are many theories that distinguish or have set learning preferences and styles -- most have been debunked by now. You know this from what I already shared in episode 3.2. Individual Learning Preferences.That being said, there are different modalities to learn and some people prefer a mix to fully understand -- I know I do. Here are some ways to offer individual choice and options for learning preferences -- consider these formats: Lectures Games and activities Reading Talking Act as a leader or follower Listen to music in the background or white noise Silence to study Brainstorming new ideas Working alone or in groups Creative vs. analytic styles Computer vs. human interaction Reflections Need for closure or remain open for the unknown How do you prefer to learn? Are you more of an informal or formal learner?
9 minutes | Nov 22, 2019
3.10. Copyright and Fair Use Laws
3.10. Copyright and Fair Use LawsLearning Objective: Summarize how copyright and fair use laws relate to the production of materials for training deliveryIt is important to get permission and give credit where it is due, so as talent development professionals creating materials for training delivery it is important to use copyright and fair use guidelines to do so. Whether it’s print or digital materials for training, it will be important to understand how laws and regulations impact the design, delivery, and measurement of learning or a performance initiative. Fair Use: air Use is a legal doctrine that promotes freedom of expression by permitting the unlicensed use of copyright-protected works in certain circumstances. Section 107 of the Copyright Act provides the statutory framework for determining whether something is a fair use and identifies certain types of uses—such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research—as examples of activities that may qualify as fair use.” When considering if objects or materials are under fair use, you should examine the four requirements: The purpose is for nonprofit, noncommercial educational use (typical cases): The nature of the copyrighted work is consistent with the proposed use. The amount of the original work involved some small uses can be considered an infringement, that is, a small portion involves the core idea in the copyrighted work. The effect of using the copyrighted work is not likely to deprive the copyright holder of sales or market interests There are also “Works Made for Hire” where the employer or the other person for who was hired for the work was authoring training instruments for an employer or organization as training materials to be designated their copyright. Copyright Law: protects the expression of ideas but not the ideas themselves in some tangible form e.g. book, magazine, video, film, etc. Although the exact words in a book may be copyrighted the ideas in the book are not. Things that cannot be copyrighted: ideas, processes, procedures, methods of operation, concepts, principles, or discoveries; however, a tangible description, explanation, or illustration of these may not be copyrighted.In the United States, registering the work with the US Copyright Office provides legal protection and redress in state and federal courts; a copyright holder has the exclusive right to: Reproduce the copyrighted work Prepare derivative works (adaption) based on the copyrighted work Distribute copies of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending Perform the copyrighted work publicly, in the use of motion pictures or other audiovisual works; and Display the copyrighted work publicly, in the case of audiovisual work. To avoid plagiarism, that is passing others works off as your own, give credit and recognition for knowledge and information you use for your training materials. It is important to obtain consent and permission for those items with copyright, and be prudent to include all citations or other attributions to copyrighted work. See more in AOE #6: Managing the Learning Programs; 6.8. Legal, Regulatory, and Ethical Requirements. Here are my thoughts and contributions to the topic, as I think copyright is really important and giving credit to creators -- artists, authors, and content makers.BONUS: Public Domain: The public domain refers to creative materials or works that are not protected by intellectual property laws, including copyright, trademark, or patent laws. These materials are owned by the public, not an individual author, artist, or creator. Public domain materials and work may be used without obtaining any permission; however, no one is permitted to claim ownership for it. E.g. Pexels has Public Domain ImagesREAD MORE: Getting Started with Copyright, Fair Use, The Public Domain, and Creative Commons via @laurapasquiniAs I think we ought to share and share alike, I thought I would offer some advice and guidance for how to license your work with a Creative Commons (https://creativecommons.org/) open license on it. E.g. Flickr Creative CommonsRESOURCE: To Share Your Work, You Gotta Put a @CreativeCommons License On It! By @laurapasquiniHow do you share and license your training materials? Where might you find Fair Use other materials (e.g. images, audio or video clips, etc.) for your learning and training development? Tell me about it. I am always looking for a new resource.
7 minutes | Nov 22, 2019
3.9. Preparing for Training Delivery
3.9. Preparing for DeliveryLearning Objective: Discuss the importance of adequate preparation to ensure effective communication during training deliveryPreparing for training for adult learners is key. You need to focus on the topic for the training and ensure you have the focus and interest for the professionals you are training. Getting this learning material ready and organized in advance will ensure effective communication and preparation for interactive training environment. To prepare training content, a talent development professionals should be aware of who is attending the training, know their backgrounds, work experience/industry, and motivations for the session so you know your key objectives in advance, by learning more about this information: What is the job role of each participant and job level in the organizational hierarchy? Why are the participants/employees attending the training session e.g. to learn new skills needed for the job or because it’s mandatory? Have the participants/professionals had experience with the topic, or is this learning content new? Presentation notes for training should think about what you will say and how you will deliver the knowledge and skills information by: Using large font or type for notes Double- or triple space between lines and paragraphs Indent the first line of each paragraph or point based on topics Keep thoughts, sentences, and ideas organized on one page No run on sentences and clear spacing punctuation Type words as they would be read like numbers $150,000 Use only one sheet of paper or cards for notes for speaking Number your cue cards or notes or slides - for speaking notes organization Mark where the visual aids are used to put keywords or sketches in the margins Rehearsals: it is important to practice and practice for the training sessions. Trainers should consider these suggestions for rehearsing: Rehearse enough to learn the presentation and then complete the entire presentation at each rehearsal - a 7:1 ratio of practice to presentation of training material Reduce reliance on notes with each rehearsal Audio record the presentation and try to achieve a pleasant, lively, and interesting tone with the right pace, tone, inflection, and pitch for delivery Tape rehearsal to check visual appearance to observe gestures, eye contact, body movement, and interaction with visual aids Rehearse in front of people Practice speaking spontaneously to avoid reading a script during presentation. Dress for a rehearsal in the actual clothes planned for presentation that is appropriate, comfortable, and professional. Personality: For trainers it is critical to think about training delivery as a project to share confidence, enthusiasm, and competence to promote the mindset of the presentation focus and delivery: Pretend to be brave Focus on the subject of the presentation Convert fear into positive nervousness by accepting rather than resisting fear Enjoy yourself and think of fear as an opportunity to practice your training delivery skills Avoid stimulants or depressants, e.g. caffeine or alcohol Do isometrics while waiting to begin, breathing, or stretching while waiting Pay attention to breathing and try to breathe rhythmically READ: 6 Tips for Leading a Training (That They'll Actually Enjoy) via The MuseRESOURCE: Training Preparation Checklist from Toolbox IT/TechHow do you prepare to perform? What are your pre-training delivery techniques that help you facilitate learning? For my veteran speakers, presenters, and trainers, what tips and strategies do you prepare before you are going to deliver a training or information session?
32 minutes | Nov 22, 2019
3.7. Facilitation and Presentation Tools & Techniques
3.7. Facilitation and Presentation Tools & TechniquesLearning Objectives: State 3 examples of how a trainer can create a learning climate that helps adults learn Discuss the benefits of understanding the course objectives, learning the material, practicing the delivery, and creating good questions while preparing for a presentation Discuss how basic classroom management techniques of starting and ending a session and setting expectations can enhance the learning experience for participants Explain the difference among icebreakers, opening exercises, and closing activities, and provide one example of each Explain how the use of voice and scanning the class for reactions can enhance the learning experience for participants Define facilitation List three activities that facilitate learning Use questioning techniques to facilitate discussions Summarize the differences in presenting online versus presenting in the classroom Discuss one advantage of using flipcharts, presentation software, and other training aids List one example of when not to use flip charts or presentation software Creating a Learning Climate: defined as “the andragogical approach to learning climate as being relaxed, trusting, mutually respectful, informal, warm, collaborative, and supportive with openness, authenticity, and humility as key contributing factors” (Biech, 2015). You want to think about having combined strategies, relevant course materials, suitable facilities, and reliable instructional instruments to contribute to a successful learning experience.Andragogy: the method and practice of teaching adults and is based on five key principles of adult learning from Malcolm Knowles theory based on five key principles of adult learning: self-concept, prior experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning, and motivation to learn. (See 3.1. Learning Theories for more info)Here are practical tips from Training and Development for Dummies (Biech, 2015), to make sure your participants learn in either virtual or physical training environments: Create a safe haven for learning Create a comfortable environment Encourage participation Facilitate more than lecture Preparing to Delivery Training: Preparing for the presentation and training session provides trainers with guidance and preparation for learning and development, to include: Clear understanding of the learning objectives Learn the material Practice the delivery Prepare questions to stimulate learning READ: 10 Tips for Better Presentations & Facilitation via ATDClassroom Management for Training: For working with participants you want to hold their attention, create a safe space for learning, and build in some introductions or icebreakers so others get to know one another and interact with one another. To hold participants attention, it is recommended to: Use effective openings Setting expectations Structuring and closing presentations effectively Taking attendance and keeping records Managing Difficult Participants: Sometimes you can have challenging participants in your training session that might disrupt the learning, so it’s important to know how to deal with it. Here are some potential disruptions you might encounter with participants who: Talks too often, so you need to ask what others might think or want to contribute Talks too long, so you should ask them to summarize their point Talks to someone else at length to facilitate the training Brings up personal or irrelevant issues you need to redirect Talks too little or under participates Recycle what’s already been decided Challenges ideas or opinions without any evidence or merit Keeping Energy Levels High -- The Strategies: when a trainer uses active training techniques, learners will get involved in the training experience and be active learners to construct personal meaning. Here are some examples of active training techniques to include: Brainstorming: idea generation and group processing Case study: example of an event or situation to model process, practices or behaviors Role play: act out roles, attitudes or behaviors to practice skills Energetic presentation + high energy: Project vocally Maintain an appropriate pace Avoid using fillers Enunciate clearly and distinctly Use participants’ names Use familiar terms and expressions Use a lot of examples Praise participants Use appropriate humor Maintain eye contact Use positive facial expressions Gesture with hands and arms Move around the room with energy Presentation Style & Behavior: for any presentation, what is said is as important as what is shown, for training delivery. There are a number of tips on delivering interactive presentations and keeping the energy level high and understanding these standards for success: Verbal Communication and Use of Voice Capture attention Appearance Mannerisms Body Languages Facilitating Learning Activities: for the training field, facilitation refers to guiding or making learning easier, specifically the materials, learning content, and application for training on the job. Solid trainers are facilitators first, and presenters or “sage on the stage” last. It’s not about you, but the information you are trying to deliver to the adult learner. Being intuitive about your audience and their understanding of what you are sharing cannot be taught, but you can learn the basics about how to be a more effective facilitator -- here are some tips: Create an open environment by encouraging others to participate, contribute, etc. Set guidelines for learners’ participation by respecting others’ thoughts, ideas, etc. Acknowledge people who participate by praising and thanking them for their contributions and ideas Create transitions between questions asked and answered by participants as well as between topic areas Be honest about what they know and don’t know - identify opinion from fact Express an opinion when appropriate by ensuring participants don’t feel judged or invalidated in their responses Give everyone an opportunity to participate, but never force anyone to join in Keep the discussion flowing and focused on the topic, while knowing when to bring this discussion to an end Facilitation Techniques Asking questions Question-and-Answer Sessions Transitions Silence Active listening Discussions READ: The Role of the Facilitator via MindToolsFacilitator’s Self-Check, always asks “Am I…”: Giving people equal time? Making people feel safe enough to participate? Deterring people from dominating the discussion to allow others to speak? Avoiding choosing sides? Handling conflict? Managing my time well? Involving people who don’t participate? Summarizing learning points and training takeaways? Most good facilitators: Be a good listener - you might want to take notes if necessary Control the pace - slow the session down if needed to keep participants involved Check in - ask for how people are doing? Check for understanding, pace, etc. Avoid making judgemental comments, even if they are complementary - be aware of the positive and negative comments made; balance these Support the process - keep the group focused and on task for training Smile - be aware of your facial expressions and gestures when listening to responses, feedback or comments; practice a neutral face READ: Top 11 Skills of an Effective Facilitator by The Design GymIcebreakers, Openers, and Closing Activities Openers: warm up to the group by stimulating a challenging and motivating participants to be tied to the topic of training; prepare participants to learn; set the stage or energize a training experience to prime learning Icebreakers: introductory activities to establish a safe environment for learning and allow participants to get to know one another and be involved in the learning process; it can introduce a topic, define personalities, establish group interactions or team involvement, build group or individual identity, identify skill or knowledge ability/awareness, set the tone of the training program, open communications, and evaluate learning styles; key notes to check: time, content flow, impact to training, logistics, meet objectives, feel for all at the end of activity Energizers: activities used when the participants seem overly stressed, bored, or overwhelmed; allows for more dialogue, dig into issues, skills, etc. Closing Activities: bring the training session or presentation to an end; a review for the learning objectives and key points; review of benefits for work; call to action; open up for questions; allow participants remember key points of training by: reflection, review of materials, self-assessments, checklists, clarification of questions, sharing one thing learned, or a game scenario to review knowledge/skills Questioning Techniques: Open-ended questions: longer, detailed responses Closed-ended questions: short and brief answers Socratic method: deep questioning and building on responses to question more Participation engagement strategies: Encourage participation form the start Use cards or post-it notes for the shy participants Give away the trainer’s role: rotate facilitation, teams, small groups, etc. Participate, repeat, participate: thanks, restate, & expand on ideas/contributions Ask everyone to stand up & move around: activities, small groups, moving spots Say a lot without a word: move towards conversations, ideas, activities; proximity Remove the tables: rearrange the room; set the tables for interaction Seek more attention-getting answers: ask for more ideas/responses than just 1 Select the quietest: encourage group/partner thinking and report outs Participate until the end: one action after; one fact learned; new questions from the training session Engagement Strategies for Online Training Is the training/course relevant, interesting, and effective as possible Give frequent, personal, and helpful feedback to learners Require practical final products that learners can show to their supervisors or use on the job after the training Offer a certificate for successful completion Contact participants' supervisor and notify them when the employee completes the training requirements Personalize the training - messages, comments, feedback Break the course or training up into sections Help foster learners’ self-discipline by establishing firm deadlines Other Considerations for Online Facilitation include: Unique characteristics of communicating online Tips for communicating information visually Tips for creating interactivity online Appropriate interaction with learners Appropriate feedback Keeping print media interesting Presentation and Training Tools: flipcharts, slide decks, and other training aids...oh my! Here are the 5 MYTHS about use of visual aids for training: The more visual aids the better - not so! Any visual aid is better than none The more high-tech the visual aids, the better More things can go wrong when using visual aid in a session, so it’s better to just rely on oneself Visual aids cost too much Options for visual aids and training tools: Presentation software (PowerPoint, Prezi, Keynote, Google Slides, etc.) Flip Charts and easels Whiteboards and other types of boards (chalk, blackboards, etc.) Projection equipment Wi-Fi Connection Audio and video adds to your presentation Books referenced and read in this episode: Training and Development for Dummies by Elaine Biech (2015) Facilitating with Ease! 4th Ed. by Ingrid Bens (2018)
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