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Episodes - In Theory Podcast
21 minutes | Nov 13, 2017
Mini-Ep: Maria Had a Baby!
Missed us? We’ve been busy…in Maria’s case, making a BABY! (Among other things.) In this mini episode we check in about maternal health numbers in the US (not amazing), the experience of becoming a mother (pretty sweet, but keep yer grains of salt handy), and - of course - hit up some feminist theory about this whole childbearing thing. What’s up, Simone de Beauvoir! If you’ve been watching The Handmaid’s Tale and need another perspective on reproduction, you’ve come to the right place. Mamma Mia! We’re multiplying!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheorySimone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1949)ContextKiera Butler, "The Scary Truth About Childbirth," Motherjones.com. Jan/Feb 2017. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/01/childbirth-injuries-prolapse-cesarean-section-natural-childbirth/#Nina Martin, "Focus On Infants During Childbirth Leaves U.S. Moms In Danger," NPR.org. May 12, 2017. https://www.npr.org/2017/05/12/527806002/focus-on-infants-during-childbirth-leaves-u-s-moms-in-danger Catherine Pearson, “What The French Get So Right About Taking Care Of New Moms,” HuffingtonPost.com. January 17, 2017. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-the-french-get-so-right-about-taking-care-of-new-moms_us_587d27b4e4b086022ca939c4BonusMargaret Atwood, The Handmaid's Tale (1985), now a series on Hulu. Some useful medical advice for women who are pregnant, collected by NPR: https://www.npr.org/2017/08/03/541191480/if-you-hemorrhage-dont-clean-up-advice-from-mothers-who-almost-diedMusic by ABBA and Mariah.
24 minutes | Jan 6, 2017
S3E6 - Season 3 Gab: Taking Stock, Making Resolutions
One year is over, another just begun! In this mid-season gab we talk about how to look back over the past year and share strategies for making New Year's resolutions that stick. Discover the official Noorain Khan method for taking stock at the end of a year, hear our goals for 2017, and get some concrete advice on how to make a good resolution courtesy of kids.usa.gov. We also reveal our greatest resolution successes (Maria's involves Mordor, kind of) and swear that THIS is the year we're going to stay active - really!! Ready to take on the new year? Tune in for a chilled-out chat about taking the next steps! Links to Stuff we Talk AboutOn Noorain's love of self-improvement, quantified and otherwise:S1E8: Our Quantified / Cyborg Selves http://www.intheory.us/episodes/2015/9/16/episode-8-our-quantifiedcyborg-selves S3E1 - Self Help http://www.intheory.us/episodes/2016/10/18/s3e1-self-help Stephanie Pappas, “Why We Make New Year's Resolutions,” LiveScience. December 31, 2013. http://www.livescience.com/42255-history-of-new-years-resolutions.htmlTips from kigs.usa.gov to help you reach your New Year's resolutions: https://kids.usa.gov/exercise-and-eating-healthy/new-years-resolution/index.shtmlMusic by Bing Crosby, New Buffalo, and (of course!) Prince.
43 minutes | Dec 22, 2016
S3E5 - Poetry
Does the prospect of reading a poem send you into panicked memories of 11th grade English class? FEAR NOT! Poetry doesn't have to be like that! In this episode we find out how it's secretly all around us in the best ways, use theory to kill the author and open up avenues for fun interpretation, and share love for viral poetry by women of color. Maria's pal and colleague Dr. Adhaar Noor Desai helps demo how to unpack a plum(b) poem (the results make Noorain blush!), and we discover how to put more poetry in our lives. Take a moment to listen - and maybe even start to write! Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryRoland Barthes, “The Death of the Author” (1967) http://www.tbook.constantvzw.org/wp-content/death_authorbarthes.pdf ContextRomán Castellanos-Monfil, "Yale senior wins the Individual World Poetry Slam Championship," Yale News, October 26, 2015. http://news.yale.edu/2015/10/26/yale-senior-wins-individual-world-poetry-slam-championship. (video of Emi’s performance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IspMMNR8EOo)Ron Charles, Geoff Edgers and Brian Murphy, "‘Poetry for the ear’: Bob Dylan wins Nobel Prize in Literature," The Washington Post. October 13, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/books/bob-dylan-wins-nobel-prize-in-literature/2016/10/13/d0c05ac4-90ea-11e6-a6a3-d50061aa9fae_story.html J.G. McClure, “The Miseducation of the Poet: High School and the Fear of Poetry,” Clever Magazine. http://www.cleavermagazine.com/the-miseducation-of-the-poet-high-school-and-the-fear-of-poetry-by-j-g-mcclure/National Endowment for the Arts, “How a Nation Engages with Art: Highlights from the 2012 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts,” NEA Research Report #57, September 2013. https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/highlights-from-2012-sppa-revised-oct-2015.pdfMichelle Toglia, “Transcript Of Beyonce's 'Lemonade' Because The Words Are Just As Important As The Music,” Bustle, April 24, 2016. https://www.bustle.com/articles/156559-transcript-of-beyonces-lemonade-because-the-words-are-just-as-important-as-the-music YouTube video with all Lemonade poems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbV84ztUyuY (catch the lemonade recipe we play at 16:30 -17:48) BonusA bonus close reading of Billy Collins's poem "Divorce" with Adhaar and Maria from their interview! Cutlery involved.Poetry in Motion by MTA Arts & Design: http://web.mta.info/mta/aft/poetry/More on writer & artist Rupi Kaur: https://www.rupikaur.com/ (on Instagram https://www.instagram.com/rupikaur_/?hl=en) https://www.rupikaur.com/milkandhoney/)Suggested poems for people who think they don’t like poetry: https://www.bustle.com/articles/193723-8-poetry-collections-for-people-who-dont-like-poetryTry writing your own poem! Here are some great English-language haikus: https://www.amazon.com/Haiku-Anthology-Third-Cor-Heuvel/dp/0393321185 Or write a poem based on a memory following these steps by Tara Skurtu: http://blog.bestamericanpoetry.com/the_best_american_poetry/2016/01/i-dont-like-poetry-im-not-a-poetry-person-by-tara-skurtu.html Guest speaker BIO! Adhaar Noor Desai is an Assistant Professor of Literature at Bard College who specializes in Shakespeare and early modern poetry. He completed his PhD in English at Cornell University, where he was a Fellow at their Center for Teaching Excellence. He has recently published in the journal Configurations and writes theatre reviews on contemporary stagings of Shakespeare. Follow him on Twitter at @adhaardesai PoemsHelen Chasin, “The Word Plum”Patrick Philips, "Heaven" John Stephenson, "Snowy night" and other haikuWilliam Carlos Williams, “Asphodel, That Greeny Flower”Music this time by Corinne Bailey Rae, Bob Dylan, & Johnny Tillotson.
38 minutes | Dec 8, 2016
S3E4 - Gifts
Got gift-giving on your mind? You're not the only one to agonize over it! Is exchanging presents a magical practice of reciprocity that leads to stronger human bonds (Team Anthropology!) or is it an inefficient scourge leading to deadweight loss (Team Economics!)? In this episode, we explore these two camps...and in the process get to Japan's extreme gifting culture (Maria’s our in-house expert!), best/worst presents (yay!/ack!), holiday shopping, and registries. Get ready folks, we unwrap gift giving like no one else does—like nerds! Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryBronisław Malinowski, “Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea” (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922) http://wolnelektury.pl/katalog/lektura/argonauts-of-the-western-pacific/ [N&M note: Yes, this title is bad, like baaaad.]Marcel Mauss, “The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies” (Cohen & West Ltd, 1966). https://archive.org/details/giftformsfunctio00maus [N&M note: Yes, this one too.]Joel Waldfogel, “Scroogenomics: Why You Shouldn't Buy Presents for the Holidays” (Princeton University Press, 2009). http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8972.html Context“Why Economists Hate Gifts”. Planet Money. December 11, 2011. NPR. http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/12/23/144195081/the-friday-podcast-why-economists-hate-giftsCaitlin Kenney. “The Most Wasteful Time Of Year.” Planet Money. November 25, 2009. NPR. http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2009/11/podcast_happy_efficent_holiday.htmlShankar Vedantam. "New Study Explores Psychology Of Giving Wedding Gifts." All Things Considered. June 24, 2016. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2016/06/24/483426485/new-study-explores-psychology-of-giving-wedding-gifts BonusOn Japanese gift giving etiquette On Valentine’s Day & White Day in Japan Music this time by 50 Cent, The Isley Brothers, Queen Mariah & Natalie Merchant
44 minutes | Nov 24, 2016
S3E3 - International Activism
Want to go out and change the world? Great! WE NEED IT. But how to avoid doing more harm than good, especially when working for people from other contexts and cultures? We dig into this tricky question with Dr. Ryan Richard Thoreson: human rights lawyer, LGBTIQ activist, and one of our personal faves. Along the way we encounter white savior Barbie, grapple with the notion of cultural relativism, and each reveal some of our most facepalm-worthy moments abroad. Ryan also catches us up on the state of international LGBTIQ rights and activism, and we share some real talk about the colonialist legacy of the Rhodes Scholarships that Ryan, Noorain, and Maria all held. Theory helped shape how we approach making positive change, so join us for this ep and then get out there and make a difference where you can!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryJack Donnelly, “Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights,” Human Rights Quarterly 6.4 (Nov. 1984): 400-419. http://fs2.american.edu/dfagel/www/Class%20Readings/Donnelly/Cultual%20Relativism.pdfRyan Richard Thoreson, Transnational LGBT Activism: Working for Sexual Rights Worldwide (University Of Minnesota Press, 2014) https://www.amazon.com/Transnational-LGBT-Activism-Working-Worldwide/dp/0816692742/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8ArticlesTeju Cole, “The White-Savior Industrial Complex,” The Atlantic. March 22, 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/the-white-savior-industrial-complex/254843/Nadia Khomami. "Oxford scholars reject hypocrisy claims amid row over Cecil Rhodes statue." The Guardian. January 13, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/jan/12/cecil-rhodes-scholars-reject-hypocrisy-claims-amid-row-over-oriel-college-statueCourtney Martin, "The Reductive Seduction of Other People’s Problems," Medium. January 11, 2016. https://medium.com/the-development-set/the-reductive-seduction-of-other-people-s-problems-3c07b307732d#.944npi1zlSarah Schulman, “Israel and ‘Pinkwashing,’” The New York Times. November 22, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/23/opinion/pinkwashing-and-israels-use-of-gays-as-a-messaging-tool.htmlContextIlisa Barbash and Lucien Taylor, Cross-Cultural Filmmaking: A Handbook for Making Documentary and Ethnographic Films and Videos (University of California Press, 1997) https://www.amazon.com/Cross-Cultural-Filmmaking-Handbook-Documentary-Ethnographic/dp/0520087607 Zeba Blay, "'White Savior Barbie’ Hilariously Parodies Volunteer Selfies In Africa," The Huffington Post. April 18, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/white-savior-barbie-hilariously-parodies-volunteer-selfies-in-africa_us_570fd4b5e4b03d8b7b9fc464 and Barbie Savior Instagram account: https://www.instagram.com/barbiesavior/ "Government and Philanthropic Support for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Communities," 2013/2014 Global Resources Report. June 2016. http://www.lgbtfunders.org/files/2013-2014_Global_Resources_Report.pdfBonusRudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden”: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/Maria's documentary Momentum: Math and Science Teachers in Zambia (2006) on YouTube:Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cWd1YQCdhEUPart 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NMV8Pxux_5cStatement from the Rhodes Trust on Cecil Rhodes’ legacy http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/rhodesandlegacy Guest Speaker BIO! Ryan Richard Thoreson is the author of the book Transnational LGBT Activism: Working for Sexual Rights Worldwide, and has worked with a number of sexual rights groups including OutRight Action International and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Association. He completed his doctorate in Anthropology at the University of Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar, and holds a JD from Yale Law School. He is currently completing a two-year fellowship researching and writing about LGBT children’s rights at Human Rights Watch. Music this time by the Black Eyed Peas, Alicia Keys, and MJ.
31 minutes | Nov 10, 2016
S3 Replay: Progressive Patriotism
Following the 2016 election results, we've decided to share our vision for America at its best. So we're re-releasing our episode on patriotism from Season Two. In it, we talk about what it means to be both progressive and patriotic, and describe our inclusive American dream, which has room for both tradition and change. There is so much work to be done, and so much good to fight for. We've rounded up some links for ways to get involved and, if needed, help heal yourself and your community below.Links about stuff we can do:Get Involved:Lily Feinn, “27 Little Things You Can Do To Make A Positive Difference After The 2016 Election Results” Bustle Magazine. November 9, 2016. https://www.bustle.com/articles/194304-27-little-things-you-can-do-to-make-a-positive-difference-after-the-2016-election-resultsAnthony D. Romero (ACLU Executive Director) “If Donald Trump Implements His Proposed Policies, We’ll See Him in Court.” ACLU.org, November 9, 2016. https://www.aclu.org/blog/speak-freely/if-donald-trump-implements-his-proposed-policies-well-see-him-court Join the American Civil Liberties Union here. Joanna Rothkopf, “A List of Pro-Women, Pro-Immigrant, Pro-Earth, Anti-Bigotry Organizations That Need Your Support” Jezebel.com, November 9, 2016. http://jezebel.com/a-list-of-pro-women-pro-immigrant-pro-earth-anti-big-1788752078Lisa Ryan, “Here’s How to Donate to 10 Charities That Need Your Support Now More Than Ever” New York Magazine. November 9, 2016. http://nymag.com/thecut/2016/11/how-to-donate-to-planned-parenthood-and-other-charities.html“How to Channel Your Post-Election Anger, Sadness, and Fear Into Action,” Slate.com. November 9, 2016. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/politics/2016/11/how_liberals_can_channel_their_post_election_anxiety_into_action.htmlSelf-care:John M. Grohol, Psy.D., “Healing After the Election,” World of Psychology. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2016/11/08/healing-after-the-election/Collier Meyerson, “How women of color are practicing self-care in a Trump world,” Fusion.net. November 9, 2016 http://fusion.net/story/368417/women-of-color-self-care-tips-trump-president/
43 minutes | Oct 27, 2016
S3E2 - Restorative Justice
Ready to rethink what justice might look like in courts, schools, nations, and even our personal lives? In this episode, we take on restorative justice, the fledgling movement to engage victims and perpetrators (yes, we know, a loaded word!) of all kinds in constructive dialogue. This model offers a powerful alternative to the punitive paradigm of the American incarceration system, and ideally can lead to understanding, growth, and community-building. Human Rights lawyer and all-around badass Beth Compa talks us through some practical applications of RJ, and we get into both its promise and limitations. And along the way, we brush up on theories of justice (haaaayyy John Rawls), connect to themes from past eps, AND use a restorative justice lens to analyze her royal highness Queen Bey’s LEMONADE. Sorry, we ain’t sorry. Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryJohn Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971) https://books.google.com/books/about/A_Theory_of_Justice.html?id=vcVEPc30ut0C"About Restorative Justice," Centre for Justice & Reconciliation, A Program of Prison Fellowship International. http://restorativejustice.org/restorative-justice/about-restorative-justice/ArticlesCarly Berwick, "Zeroing out Zero Tolerance." The Atlantic. March 17, 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/03/zeroing-out-zero-tolerance/388003/Paul Tullis, "Can Forgiveness Play a Role in Criminal Justice?" New York Times Magazine. January 4, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/06/magazine/can-forgiveness-play-a-role-in-criminal-justice.html.Melinda D. Anderson, "Will School-Discipline Reform Actually Change Anything?" The Atlantic. September 14, 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/09/will-school-discipline-reform-actually-change-anything/405157/. ContextGrowing Fairness. Teachers United (2013). http://www.teachersunite.org/documentaryCode of Hammurabi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_HammurabiSouth Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: http://www.justice.gov.za/Trc/Ira Glass, (Narrator). (2016, August 26). "Deep End of the Pool," (No. 595) [Audio podcast] - includes a great story about a private lawyer drafted to become a public defender, and what he learns about that system. This American Life. http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/595/deep-end-of-the-pool?act=1BonusBeyonce's Lemonade (2016) http://www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/Equal Justice Initiative https://eji.org/In Theory S1E4: Childhood http://www.intheory.us/episodes/2015/7/1/childhood-those-golden-years-or-are-they (relevant to our conversation on schools)In Theory S3E1: Self Help http://www.intheory.us/episodes/2016/10/18/s3e1-self-help (relevant to our conversation on adversarial systems and the fetishization of competition) Guest Speaker BIO! Most recently a staff attorney at the Promise of Justice Initiative, Beth Compa began her career with the Southern Center for Human Rights in Atlanta, where she examined the effects of privatization on Georgia’s prison and misdemeanor probation systems. Beth holds a B.A. in History from NYU (2004) and a J.D. from Yale (2011), where she was Editor in Chief of the Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal, a director of the Rebellious Lawyering conference, and a member of the Detention & Human Rights clinic.
32 minutes | Oct 20, 2016
S3E1 - Self Help
Lifehacks, Oprah, The Secret…who CAN’T use a little self-help to maximize their personal and professional lives? We kick off Season 3 by diving into self help and celebrity advice culture, exploring both what’s great about them and their darker sides. We pin down the concept “neoliberalism,” and talk about how competition from the boardroom to the bedroom is leaving people feeling more isolated and looking to self-help for ways to survive in an increasingly precarious economy. On the way, Noorain opens up about her love of Oprah and her celebrity book binges, and Maria casts some epic shade on Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. Let’s get this In Theory party started! Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryDaniel Nehring, Emmanuel Alvarado, Eric C. Hendriks, and Dylan Kerrigan, Transnational Popular Psychology and the Global Self-Help Industry: The Politics of Contemporary Social Change (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016) http://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9780230370852 Jennifer M. Silva, Coming up Short: Working-Class Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty (Oxford University Press, 2013) https://www.amazon.com/Coming-Short-Working-Class-Adulthood-Uncertainty/dp/0190231890 ArticlesPeter Fleming, “The way to a better work-life balance? Unions, not self-help,” The Guardian, October 11, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/careers/2016/oct/11/way-to-better-work-life-balance-unions-not-self-help Vanessa Friedman, “How Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop Has Become a Role Model for Other Celebrities,” The New York Times, November 14, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/16/fashion/how-gwyneth-paltrow-goop-has-become-a-role-model-for-other-celebrities.htmlGeorge Monbiot, “Neoliberalism – the ideology at the root of all our problems,” The Guardian, April 15, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/apr/15/neoliberalism-ideology-problem-george-monbiotJoe Pinsker “America Is Even Less Socially Mobile Than Most Economists Thought,” The Atlantic, July 23, 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/07/america-social-mobility-parents-income/399311/ ContextWilliam G. Domhoff, “Wealth, Income, and Power” Who Rules America? September 2005; updated February 2013 http://whorulesamerica.net/power/wealth.html Trysh Travis, The Language of the Heart: A Cultural History of the Recovery Movement from Alcoholics Anonymous to Oprah Winfrey (University of North Carolina Press, 2009) https://www.amazon.com/Language-Heart-Cultural-Recovery-Alcoholics/dp/1469607301 Janice Peck, Age of Oprah: Cultural Icon for the Neoliberal Era (Routledge, 2008) https://www.amazon.com/Age-Oprah-Cultural-Neoliberal-Media/dp/1594514690 Bonus: Noorain’s celeb list!Goop http://goop.com/ Top 10 Oprah moments https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3qKEDBxwzYJewel, Never Broken https://www.amazon.com/Never-Broken-Songs-Only-Story/dp/0399185720Janet Mock, Redefining Realness https://www.amazon.com/Redefining-Realness-Path-Womanhood-Identity/dp/1476709130 Shonda Rimes, Year of Yes https://www.amazon.com/Year-Yes-Dance-Stand-Person-ebook/dp/B00YTG3C0GLindy West, Shrill https://www.amazon.com/Shrill-Notes-Woman-Lindy-West/dp/0316348406Music this time by the Bananaramas, Miike Snow, and Destiny's Child.
28 minutes | Jun 9, 2016
S2E8 - Aliens: Where is everybody???
Hey--is anyone out there? In our last official episode of Season 2, we talk about whether humans are actually alone in the universe with the help of theories from physicists, philosophers, and Champagne Papi. JK. Kind of. From the Fermi Paradox to the Great Filter Theory to the Drake Equation (see what we did there?) we discuss whether it's crazy to believe in UFOs and little green men…or crazy NOT to! Along the way Maria reveals her awkward mixup of foreign vs. intergalactic policy expectations, Noorain sings the praises of the feminist movie Contact, and together we muse on what our collective obsession with life on other planets says about humanity today. Get ready everyone, the government can’t cover up this conversation! The truth is out there...Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryRene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy." transl. D. A. Cress (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing; originally published in 1641) http://selfpace.uconn.edu/class/percep/DescartesMeditations.pdf"The Drake Equation." SETI Institute. http://www.seti.org/drakeequation "The Fermi Paradox." SETI Institute. http://www.seti.org/seti-institute/project/details/fermi-paradoxMax Weber, "Science as Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. and transl. H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946; originally published in 1919), 129-156. http://anthropos-lab.net/wp/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Weber-Science-as-a-Vocation.pdfContextDavid Chalmers, "The Philosophy of Virtual Reality" (on Descartes, perception, and the Matrix - thanks to Nabiha Syed for the link!) https://aeon.co/videos/new-realities-are-imminent-how-vr-reframes-big-questions-in-philosophyArticlesWill Dahlgreen, "You are not alone: most people believe that aliens exist," YouGov. September 28, 2015. https://today.yougov.com/news/2015/09/28/you-are-not-alone-most-people-believe-aliens-exist/George Dvorsky, "11 of the Weirdest Solutions to the Fermi Paradox," io9. March 20, 2013. http://io9.com/11-of-the-weirdest-solutions-to-the-fermi-paradox-456850746George Dvorsky, "The Great Filter theory suggests humans have already conquered the threat of extinction," io9. December 21, 2012. http://io9.com/5970501/the-great-filter-theory-suggests-humans-have-already-conquered-the-threat-of-extinctionDouglas Main, "Most People Believe Intelligent Aliens Exist, Poll Says," Newsweek. September 29, 2015. http://www.newsweek.com/most-people-believe-intelligent-aliens-exist-377965 Tim Urban, " The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?," Gizmodo. May 23, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/the-fermi-paradox-where-the-hell-are-the-other-earths-1580345495BonusNoorain's elementary school reading: My Teacher is an Alien (1989) https://lexile.com/book/details/9780671737290/ and beloved film Contact (1997): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRoj3jK37VcMusic this time by Katy Perry, St. Vincent, and the magnificent Ella Fitzgerald. With shoutouts to Drake (naturally) and the X-Files theme song (DOUBLE naturally).
37 minutes | May 26, 2016
S2E7 - Do-It-Yourself Theory and the Crafting Comeback
From craft brewing to knitting, when did acting like we’re home on the range get so cool? And why is it so satisfying to can your own jar of jam, hand-build a table, or make a quilt? This week we take on the history, culture, and politics of hipster crafting and DIY. With the help of our trusty friend Marx and a theory of "new domesticity," we dig into what modern-day maker throwbacks can tell us about our work lives and gender identities. Sociologist and beer whisperer Dr. Allison McKim helps us unpack the homebrewing explosion and its gender-troubled history, PLUS we get into Maria's love of Renaissance Faires, Noorain's once-but-no-more work alienation, and high-concept housekeeping. Pour yourself a beer (or a cold brewed coffee if you're Noorain) and come talk crafting! If you can make it, we will talk about it!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryKarl Marx, “Estranged Labour,” in Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/labour.htm (Marx's theory of alienation explained in everyday language here and here) Rachel Lee Rubin, Well Met: Renaissance Faires and the American Counterculture (NYU Press, 2012) http://www.amazon.com/Well-Met-Renaissance-American-Counterculture/dp/1479859729Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN.html (on division of labor and the rise of capitalism) ArticlesKrystal Baugher, “Women and Beer: A 4,500-Year History Is Coming Full Circle,” The Atlantic. November 11, 2013. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/11/women-and-beer-a-4-500-year-history-is-coming-full-circle/281338/ Emily Matchar, “The New Domesticity: Fun, Empowering or a Step Back for American Women?” The Washington Post. November 25, 2011. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-new-domesticity-fun-empowering-or-a-step-back-for-american-women/2011/11/18/gIQAqkg1vN_story.htmlBonnie Rochman, “Handmade in America: Crafting's Comeback,” Parade. October 19, 2013. http://communitytable.parade.com/214945/bonnierochman/handmade-in-america-craftings-comeback/ Context“2012 State of the Craft Industry” Craft & Hobby Association Presentation. 2012. https://www.craftandhobby.org/eweb/docs/2012.State.of.Craft.Industy_Key.Insights.pdf“Indie Craft Inspiration.” Craft & Hobby Association’s Portfolio Magazine. Winter 2009. https://www.craftandhobby.org/EWEB/docs/cha/Portfolio-Pdfs/2009%20Winter%20Portfolio.pdfShannon Hayes, Radical Homemakers: Reclaiming Domesticity from a Consumer Culture. Left to Write Press. February 1, 2010. http://www.amazon.com/Radical-Homemakers-Reclaiming-Domesticity-Consumer/dp/0979439116/ref=pd_sim_14_1?ie=UTF8&dpID=51%2BGpPUHCPL&dpSrc=sims&preST=_AC_UL160_SR107%2C160_&refRID=0FHRX0XDDE8PZFHJHF18 BonusBeer whisperer Allison McKim is also an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Bard College; more on her here. Music this week from Billy Currington, Jewel, Lila Downs, The Cardigans, and Erykah Badu!
24 minutes | May 12, 2016
S2E6 - Season 2 Gab: Bold Transformations & Cozy Routines
Here in our mid-season grab-bag of chilled out convo, we take a break from theory to gab: we reflect on some of the amazing experiences we had as teenagers that made us into the people we are today. From socially conscious scouting to international underwear adventures, we take it back to '90s and let you in on some dorky-but-excellent truths about our formative years. PLUS we each describe our perfect Saturday and get enthusiastic about go-to takeout and gas station jalapeño poppers. Don't judge!! Come relax your brain with us (you need troughs to have peaks!) as we gear up for the last few episodes of Season 2.Links to Stuff We Talk AboutFormative Experiences (Transformations)OK, we didn't talk about this explicitly, but doesn't Noorain's amazing rad Girl Scout program sound like the Pawnee Goddesses from S4 E4 of Parks and Rec, in the best way possible?! We played a little audio from that in our episode - Feministing agrees that they are the best! http://feministing.com/2011/10/21/parks-and-recreation-thank-you-for-the-pawnee-goddesses/ (Noorain dreams of being the Leslie Knope of West Michigan IRL!)Maria's life-changing semester in Norway went down at Bergen Katedralskole (est. 1153 because Europe) in the city of Bergen. Thinking about a trip to Scandinavia? You should totally go to Bergen, it's the jam: https://www.lonelyplanet.com/norway/bergen-and-the-western-fjords/bergenLazy Saturday (Routines)Lichee Nut, your new go-to Chinese takeout/delivery in Brooklyn. Pairs perfectly with 8 hours of TV binging. http://licheenut.com/The (possible?) origins of mozzarella sticks, even though we've never met anyone who actually makes them at home. Frying cheese does not a mozzarella stick make, Thrillist. But also pics and (possible) backstories for other great deep fried icons of lazy Saturdays across our great nation: https://www.thrillist.com/eat/nation/where-fried-foods-came-from-corn-dogs-mozzarella-sticks-fried-candy-barsMusic this week by Madonna, Marc Anthony (salsa version), Arcade Fire, the Kinks, and just a tad of Queen Bey.
30 minutes | Apr 28, 2016
S2E5 - Aging: Like Wine or Milk?
Hi In Theoryites—we’re back and talking about getting older! Especially as women who've crossed into the brave new world of being thirtysomethings. That means we’ve got on point theory for you related to andro-centrisim + biological determinism, and how they're part of calculating what Amy Schumer calls your last f*ckable day. Kidding! We hope. We’re also going to take on cultural difference and eldercare, mentorship, and poetry about wearing purple. Like for real. No need for anti-aging cream here, we LOVE getting older!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryLinda R. Gannon, Women and Aging: Transcending the Myths (London: Routledge, 1999). Feminist approach to the female body as it ages. http://www.amazon.com/Women-Aging-Transcending-Myths-Psychology/dp/0415169100 ContextAARP.com: "Talking With Your Parents About Independent Living: Starting the conversation about their options" http://www.aarp.org/home-family/caregiving/info-05-2012/talking-about-independent-living.htmlEric Kleinenberg, Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone (Penguin, 2012). https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/books/2012/02/14/gIQApdKcYR_story.html (thanks Allison McKim for the suggestion!)Jenny Joseph, “Warning” poem (1961) http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/warning/ Inside Amy Schumer: "Last F**able Day' feat. Tina Fey, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, and Patricia Arquette," 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XPpsI8mWKmgArticlesKyle Buchanan. “Emma Stone, Jennifer Lawrence, and Scarlett Johansson Have an Older-Man Problem.” New York Magazine. June 1, 2015. http://www.vulture.com/2015/05/emma-jlaw-and-scarletts-older-man-problem.html# Kyle Buchanan. “Leading Men Age, But Their Love Interests Don’t.” New York Magazine. April 18, 2013. http://www.vulture.com/2013/04/leading-men-age-but-their-love-interests-dont.html# MacArthur Foundation Research Network on an Aging Society. “Facts and Fictions About an Aging America.” Contexts Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 16–21. Fall 2009. https://www.macfound.org/media/files/AGING-CONTEXTS-FACTFICTION.PDFTanzina Vega. “As Parents Age, Asian-Americans Struggle to Obey a Cultural Code.” The New York Times. January 14, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/15/us/as-asian-americans-age-their-children-face-cultural-hurdles.html?_r=1 Bonus We dig 106 year old White House visitor Virginia McLaurin, the “Parents” episode of Aziz Ansari’s Master of None, and the Red Hat Society. This week’s music from Jay Z (2014), Gene Autry (1931) & The Beatles (1967).
32 minutes | Apr 14, 2016
S2E4 - Destination: VACATION
Ever tried to cram a year's worth of relaxation, adventure, and bonding into your precious few vacation days? Had a meltdown while lost down the TripAdvisor rabbit hole? Got down on yourself for feeling unproductive and wanting to ditch? This time Noorain and Maria talk about vacations: who gets to take them and who doesn't, the benefits of leaving your job both physically and mentally behind, "authentic" trips and the upsides of kicking back in a world of total artifice. Maria spills about her epic Disney Cruise experience, Noorain admits her addiction to online travel planning, and Max Weber and Jean Baudrillard toss their most vacation-relevant theories into our luggage for the trip. Whether you need some holy days of holiday reflection or just want to vacate on your vacation...all aboard!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryJean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation, transl. Sheila Faria Glaser (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1994). http://www.amazon.com/Simulacra-Simulation-The-Body-Theory/dp/0472065211, especially hyperreality.Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905). http://www.amazon.com/Protestant-Ethic-Spirit-Capitalism-Twentieth-Century/dp/0140439218ContextThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights' "right to rest" (Article 24): http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/Rebecca Ray, Milla Sanes, and John Schmitt, "No-Vacation Nation Revisited." Center for Economic Policy and Research. May 2013. http://cepr.net/publications/reports/no-vacation-nation-2013Juliet Schor, The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline Of Leisure (Basic Books, 1993). http://www.amazon.com/The-Overworked-American-Unexpected-Decline/dp/046505434XGeorge Tripp, "The Christian's Work Ethic" (excerpt from New Journey Fellowship Ministries sermon). Archive.org. July 11, 2012. https://archive.org/details/TheChristiansWorkEthic NOTE: we excerpt from this in our discussion of the Protestant Ethic & the Spirit of Capitalism. Fittingly, George Tripp also has a ministry consulting company (Grace & Truth Consulting) that you can check out here.ArticlesAnne Fisher, "Why don't Americans take more time off?" Fortune Magazine. July 28, 2015. http://fortune.com/2015/07/28/americans-vacation-use/Douglas LaBier, "So Much Work, No Time For Vacation? Here's Why!" Psychology Today Online. August 11, 2014. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-new-resilience/201408/so-much-work-no-time-vacation-heres-whyAndrea Sachs, "How TripAdvisor altered your vacation planning universe." The Washington Post. August 29, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/travel/how-tripadvisor-altered-your-vacation-planning-universe/2015/08/27/43fdec1e-4064-11e5-bfe3-ff1d8549bfd2_story.htmlBrigid Schulte, "Leisure is the new productivity." CNN.com. February 4, 2015. http://www.cnn.com/2015/01/12/opinions/schulte-leisure-productivity/BonusPlan your own Disney cruise...we are in no way sponsored by Disney, but are open to offers. ;) Or get philosophical with Robert Rowland Smith's Breakfast with Socrates: An Extraordinary (Philosophical) Journey Through Your Ordinary Day (Free Press, 2011). Or both! That great Emerson quote from the end of the episode is, for the record: “Though we travel the world over to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us, or we find it not.”Music this time around by the legendary Britney Spears (work bitch!), Malian duo Amadou & Mariam, your grandma's (and Gabriel's) favorite old-time crooner Bing Crosby, and the fabulous Lana Del Rey.
31 minutes | Mar 31, 2016
S2E3 - Patriotic Party in the U.S.A.!
America? F YEAH-- in this episode we take patriotism back from the haters and talk about our own progressive brown lady versions of loving up on our country. We share personal stories, like the creepy Scandinavian encounter that got Maria defending the red white and blue, and how the Shiite genocide relates to Noorain's patriotism. And OF COURSE we've got to talk about country music's uncanny ability to articulate certain kinds of America love! We also give you the theoretical low-down on why we even have nations, how nationalism gets cultivated, and Benedict Anderson's work on "imagined communities". There's some real talk on how to love our country in the face of islamophobia, racist police brutality, and inequality everywhere, too. Welcome to our own Party in the U.S.A.! Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryBenedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983) http://www.amazon.com/Imagined-Communities-Reflections-Nationalism-Revised/dp/1844670864Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983) http://www.amazon.com/Nations-Nationalism-Second-Edition-Perspectives/dp/0801475007ContextMore on Benedict Anderson: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/15/world/asia/benedict-anderson-scholar-who-saw-nations-as-imagined-dies-at-79.html?_r=0 ArticlesMurtaza Hussain, "Pakistan's Shia genocide." Al Jazeera America. November 26, 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/11/201211269131968565.html"Pakistan: Rampant Killings of Shia by Extremists." Human Rights Watch. June 29, 2014. https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/06/29/pakistan-rampant-killings-shia-extremistsCalvert Jones. "The surprising effects of study abroad." The Washington Post. August 20, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2015/08/20/the-surprising-effects-of-study-abroad/Adrienne Varkiani. "The Disturbing Rise Of Islamophobia In America." Think Progress. February 10, 2016. http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2016/02/10/3748058/chapel-hill-anniversary/BonusPure shade hijab: http://theslot.jezebel.com/this-hijab-is-the-purest-shade-youll-ever-see-on-fox-ne-1743239769Our original interview that got us started in talking about patriotism with the ICONIC Olive Carrolhach: http://www.intheory.us/episodes/2016/2/24/interview-with-noorain-maria-part-2Music this week (both sampled and just referenced) from Miley Cyrus "Party in the U.S.A." + Simon and Garfunkel “America” + Jay-Z and Kanye feat. Frank Ocean “Made in America” + Sharon Jones and the Dap Kings “This Land is Your Land” + Craig Morgan, “That’s What I Love About Sunday” + Jason Aldean "Flyover States" + Beyonce's 2009 rendition of “America the Beautiful” at President Obama's first inauguration + Trisha Yearwood "American Girl" + Louis Armstrong, "I'm Putting All My Eggs in One Basket" - that's you, America!
45 minutes | Mar 17, 2016
S2E2 - Food for Thought
If you are what you eat...what does that make us as Americans today? In this MEGA-EP we're talking about food: how it gets produced, its impact on people, animals, and the environment, and how to make better decisions in the grocery store. We are super excited to feature an in-depth interview with food activist and all-around legend Kate Galassi. Then Maria and Noorain break open the world of assembly-line chickens, ask some questions about food deserts, and do their best to avoid slave shrimp. Hold on to your jicamas everyone, it's time to chow down on another episode of In Theory!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryOn Fordism: Steven Tolliday & Jonathan Zeitlin, The Automobile Industry and its Workers: Between Fordism and Flexibility (New York: St.Martin's Press, 1987) http://www.amazon.com/Irresistible-Empire-Americas-Advance-Twentieth-Century/dp/0674022343ContextLisa Ling takes us inside a slaughterhouse: http://www.oprah.com/oprahshow/Inside-a-Slaughterhouse-VideoThe US Department of Agriculture’s official definition of food deserts: http://americannutritionassociation.org/newsletter/usda-defines-food-deserts ArticlesRoberto A. Ferdman, “The key difference between what poor people and everyone else eat.” The Washington Post. September 17, 2015.https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/09/17/the-depressing-difference-in-what-poor-people-and-everyone-else-eats/?tid=a_inlBecky Krystal, “How to find shrimp that’s not produced by slave labor in Thailand.” The Washington Post. December 16, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/food/wp/2015/12/16/how-to-find-shrimp-thats-not-produced-by-slave-labor-in-thailand Margie Mason, Robin McDowell, Martha Mendoza, and Esther Htusan,“ Global supermarkets selling shrimp peeled by slaves.” The Associated Press. December 14, 2015. http://bigstory.ap.org/article/8f64fb25931242a985bc30e3f5a9a0b2/ap-global-supermarkets-selling-shrimp-peeled-slaves Margot Sanger-Katz, “Giving the Poor Easy Access to Healthy Food Doesn’t Mean They’ll Buy It.” The New York Times. May 8, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/09/upshot/giving-the-poor-easy-access-to-healthy-food-doesnt-mean-theyll-buy-it.htmlBonus BIO! The wonderful Kate Galassi started her career in food working on an organic produce farm in southern New Hampshire. She’s worked for a dozen small farms and food manufacturers, most of them involved with the New York City Greenmarket. She first trained as a produce buyer at The Spotted Pig and The Breslin. In 2013 she co-founded Quinciple, a home delivery service for curated farmers’ market boxes. She is now the New York Project Head for Natoora, a London based fruit and veg supplier committed to upending the traditional distribution model by working directly with farms of all sizes.Check out artist Mishka Henner’s amazing/insane/gorgeous/horrifying aerial photos of the toxic runoff from American feedlots:http://www.businessinsider.com/mishka-henners-photos-of-american-feedlots-2014-8Music this week from Judy Collins, the Presidents of the United States of America, Weird Al, and our girl Mariah. Special thanks to Beth Pearson for being a brain trust on this week's ep!
24 minutes | Mar 3, 2016
S2E1 - Periods: Surfing the Crimson Wave
Hey you! In Theory's back for Season 2 and we're taking on menstruation! Ever wondered why we have periods? (No really - WHYYYYY??? <cramping pain>) We've got answers for you! Turns out that menstruation is full of theory to be unpacked. This week we discuss menstrual taboos across cultures, how creative tactics can help people survive oppressive systems, Maria's dream mechanical womb, and gab about the First Moon Party you never had. This isn't just for ladies--come one, come all and surf the crimson wave with us! Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryThomas Buckley & Alma Gottlieb. Blood Magic: The Anthropology of Menstruation (1988). http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520063501Michel de Certeau. The Practice of Everyday Life (1984). http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520271456ContextNatalie Angier. "Radical New View of Role of Menstruation." The New York Times. September 21, 1993. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/09/21/science/radical-new-view-of-role-of-menstruation.html?pagewanted=allArticlesLauren McGuire. "The Pill and the invention of the monthly cycle." Sociological Images. December 4, 2015. http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2015/12/04/the-pill-and-the-invention-of-the-monthly-cycle/Shreya Dasgupta. "Why do women have periods when most animals don't?" BBC News. April 20, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150420-why-do-women-have-periods Bonuslast year's amazing #happytobleed campaign in India :: the First Moon Party you never had :: new products that are leveraging a body positive view of periods in their marketing: Helloflo / Thinx / DearKate / LolaClassic period tunes this week courtesy of Ani DiFranco and the great Dolly Parton.
22 minutes | Feb 25, 2016
Interview with Noorain & Maria: Part 2
Here it is, the exciting second half of our interview! Just one week away from the official start of S2...Missed us? We’re (almost) back! In the weeks leading up to Season 2 we’re releasing this two-part interview with your co-hosts…and introducing our fab new team member Olive! Listen in for the inside scoop on how Maria and Noorain met, how the podcast came about, and reflections on growing up different in “flyover states.” (Olive’s family raised POT BELLIED PIGS!) We’re putting theory aside for the moment and just hanging out – come join! You know we won’t be able to resist nerding out, high fiving, and getting sentimental about our big-picture hopes for the future. Interludes in Part 2 from the Gorillaz and the Roots.
18 minutes | Feb 18, 2016
Interview with Noorain & Maria: Part 1
Missed us? We’re (almost) back! In the weeks leading up to Season 2 we’re releasing this two-part interview with your co-hosts…and introducing our fab new team member Olive! Listen in for the inside scoop on how Maria and Noorain met, how the podcast came about, and reflections on growing up different in “flyover states.” (Olive’s family raised POT BELLIED PIGS!) We’re putting theory aside for the moment and just hanging out – come join! You know we won’t be able to resist nerding out, high fiving, and getting sentimental about our big-picture hopes for the future. Interludes in Part 1 from Sylvan Esso and Little Dragon.
13 minutes | Oct 27, 2015
Mini-Ep: Have an Unnecessarily Sexy Halloween!
BOO! Need help picking out what to wear for Halloween? We're interrupting our own hiatus to dish on the wide range of awesomely horrific ways companies have sexed up women's and girls' Halloween costumes, from sexy pumpkins to sexy pizza rat (yes that happened). The internet has started cataloging this creepy trend every year now, but WHY is it happening? In this special between-season mini-episode, we get into the pornification of femininity and talk over Naomi Wolf's The Beauty Myth to understand why constraints on women's appearances don't appear to be going anywhere. Cady and the Mean Girls gang make it into this Halloween gabfest - don't miss out! Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryNaomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth (HarperCollins, 1991). http://www.amazon.com/The-Beauty-Myth-Images-Against/dp/0060512180And while we're at it, check out:Costumes from Legally Blonde and Mean Girls // Maria and Noorain's picks for most absurd sexy Halloween Costumes include pumpkins, SEXY pizza rat (of Pizza Rat fame), and Donald Trump // Sociological Images does a great annual "Sexy What?!" roundup every year; here's 2015! // other juicy commentary on sexy costumes here (is it slut shaming?), here (sexy doesn't have to be sexist!), and here (anti-pornification of femininity) Music from Shakira (Awooooo!).
25 minutes | Oct 1, 2015
Episode 9: Our Country Music Obsession Confession
Feels so right, feels so wrong, now we're crying, now we're running back for more… Tale of a bad ex? Nope! It's our flat-out love affair with country music. Join us in the last episode of Season 1 as we reveal all our feels about this much-abused genre, with a special focus on its fabulous storytelling and the time-honored tradition of lady revenge songs. We'll share some of our favorite tunes and talk about Lauren Berlant's infinitely useful theory of "the female complaint." Carrie Underwood, Miranda Lambert, and the Dixie Chicks dust off their boots (and shotguns) to help us unpack the intimate public of women's culture, which connects ladies through shared stories of suffering, broken dreams, and hellfire-n-vengeance when things get to be a little too much. C'mon down, y'all!Links to Stuff We Talk AboutTheoryLauren Berlant, The Female Complaint: The Unfinished Business of Sentimentality in American Culture (Duke University Press, 2008). https://www.dukeupress.edu/the-female-complaintContext"Walk the Blurred Lines: Country Music’s Cross-Over Popularity." October 30, 2014. Nielsen. http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2014/walk-the-blurred-lines-country-musics-cross-over-popularity.htmlRichard A. Peterson, Creating Country Music (University of Chicago Press, 1997) http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/C/bo3625068.html MusicSongs we shoutout and/or play in this episode: On storytellingBrad Paisley / “Waitin’ on a Woman”Reba McEntire / “The Night the Lights Went out in Georgia”Deanna Carter / “Strawberry Wine”Dolly Parton / “Jolene”On revengeThe Dixie Chicks’ / “Goodbye Earl”Carrie Underwood / “Before He Cheats”Miranda Lambert / “Gunpowder and Lead”And some others we don't get to on the show, but that you'll not want to miss:Carrie Underwood “Two Black Cadillacs” Carrie Underwood “Blown Away” Miranda Lambert “Kerosene”Reba McIntire / “Fancy” Patsy Cline / "Crazy" Bonus: What’s a tomato in country music? Find out here ;)Alright diamonds, we're out until Season 2 in January. But keep track of us on Twitter and on Facebook and if you've got ideas for what theories we should take up, email us at email@example.com. Thanks for the memories!X Maria & Noorain
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