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History Uncensored Podcast
64 minutes | Mar 31, 2021
Remember to Leave a review HERE or HERE and send me a pic on any of the following accounts Email: email@example.com Facebook Twitter I should probably mention that the history does not reflect the person in this case. This is probably the hardest episode I have ever researched or written. I am a father, I am a person and I have feelings... surprisingly. Talking about killing daughters or sons is the hardest thing I have ever had to do. Perhaps that is why this episode is taking so long to produce. So here it is child exposure in ancient Rome. I want you to know this first episode will be about child exposure, what it is and why it happened. I will mention briefly about how it affected slavery according to different sources but… this episode serves as a memory and condolences to everyone who has lost a loved one before their time. Perhaps you have lost a son or daughter. It is perhaps the greatest pain known to humanity to outlive your child and this episode is dedicated to those lost souls. May you rest in peace. Today I will teach you why it was done, how it was done and how it perpetuated Roman Slavery. Before you listen to this episode I strongly encourage any parents to find their children and give them a hug. Tell them they are loved and just know that if you lived in Ancient Rome as you look upon the faces of your children that you may have been forced to kill them or leave them to die only to see their faces painted on the face of a slave. It is important not to issue moral condemnations unthinkingly; instead we should take notice of the dilemmas that ancient parents faced when it seemed necessary to expose an infant child. By all means let us recognize ancient harshness, and patterns of action and thought which to modern morality (not lacking in its own forms of cruelty and heartlessness) are execrable. But in very many cases exposure was the con- sequence of a hard imperative. Support us!
8 minutes | Mar 23, 2021
Back Again this Time With Gifts
History Uncensored Presents! Seth apologizing for the 100th time but this time he is making up for it with a chance to win some goodies paid for by the man himself! It's Simple Leave a review on my apple podcast page here:------>https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/history-uncensored-podcast/id1456653815 Or here on my podchaser page :---->https://www.podchaser.com/podcasts/history-uncensored-podcast-835315 After you have done that and given me a glowing review probably about how awesome the podcast is, or about how enjoy me talking about bad things, whatever gets your goat I want to hear about it! So email me at Historyu.firstname.lastname@example.org with a screen shot and I will do a Drawing at the end of April for the winner! I hope this episode finds you well, because I really miss podcasting but my body appears to be failing me before my 32nd birthday. I love you all. Support us!
52 minutes | Nov 9, 2020
Head holes, Flesh Eating and Malaria!
Facebook Follow me on twitter @Seth4Nerds Check out my Patreon to support my show https://www.patreon.com/UncensoredLiving I'm sick of gruel, and the dietetics, I'm sick of pills, and sicker of emetics, I'm sick of pulses, tardiness or quickness, I'm sick of blood, its thinness or its thickness, - In short, within a word, I'm sick of sickness! THOMAS HOOD, 'Fragment', c. 1844 They are shallow animals, having always employed their minds about Body and Gut, they imagine that in the entire system of things there is nothing but Gut and Body. In this episode, I talk about trepanning, malaria therapy and eating the flesh of dead people! In short, I know how to keep it real, I hope you enjoy this episode of History Uncensored as I procrastinate yet again in releasing my episode on exposure! --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/supportSupport us!
61 minutes | Sep 8, 2020
Theodora Episode 3 Buboes and Power
get a hold of me with ideas atseth4Nerdshistoryu.email@example.comFacebookAnchor: where you can send me voice messages and even donate to my show. I would really appreciate any donations but I understand the times we live in currently.This Episode is about Theodora's last years of office and being empress. She handles the Nika Revolt, the plague and generally helps the future of women in the western world. I hope you enjoy this episode even though it took me forever to complete it.--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
46 minutes | Jul 15, 2020
Thedoroa Ep. 2 Castrating Bishops
get a hold of me with ideas at seth4Nerds firstname.lastname@example.org Facebook Anchor: where you can send me voice messages and even donate to my show. I would really appreciate any donations but I understand the times we live in currently. This episode is about the Marriage law that allows Theodora to marry Justinian and their first 5ish years in imperial office. --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/supportSupport us!
52 minutes | Mar 11, 2020
History's Dirty Short Miasma Theory
I talk about being a dad here Dads and dpads podcast- click the link fool If you have questions, suggestions or just want to talk email me at my new email address email@example.com or send me a dm on twitter. If you want me to cover a specific topic let me know and I could do a listener suggested episode. Thanks as always for listening to me talk about stuff History’s dirty shorts Caution this episode is about to get gross. You’re welcome How you got sick in the old days and what they did about it. Random concerned citizen: “man I don’t feel soo good” Priestly dude: oh man you got some demons in your blood, we should probably let it out. Concerned citizen: that sounds kind of dangerous, is it safe? Priestly guy: So you think it’s safe to have demons in your blood? Concerned Citizen: You’re probably right, get that blood out I’m hot as a prostitutes ass in hell. Priestly guy: how did you know about vi.. I need some leech demon vessels, a knife and a hand drill. R.C: hand drill? Priestly D: you don’t look great they might already be in your head. Throughout centuries philosophers and scientists tried to explain the way of infectious diseases transmission. Witchcraft, demons, gods, comets, earthquakes were the first unproved theories, followed by tangible scientific ones such as miasma’s theory, contagious theory, spontaneous generation theory and germ theory till the evolution of microbiology in mid 19th century. Primitive ideas about contagiousness dealt with the general notion of transmission through contact. Epidemics were probably rare in small primitive tribes but they became terrifying events once population density increased enough to produce and sustain them. At that time people’s ignorance led to magical or religious explanations of disease, sent by the gods as punishment for their sins. Characteristically, in Ancient Persia we see an emphasis on demonology. The disease is caused by evil spirits and must be controlled by exorcism. The cult of Nergal, a demon portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war, fever and pestilence. In 6th century BC, the pre-Socratic philosophers Pythagoras, Alcmaeon, and Empedocles inaugurated the period in science where the environment was understood to play a vital role in health and disease. A century later, Airs, waters and places of the Hippocratic texts, correlated a variety of symptoms and diseases with geographical and meteorological conditions, for example malaria, catarrh and diarrhea were believed to be due to the effect of seasonal changes on stagnant water or marshy places . Such concepts survived and in time consolidated in the belief that a pathological state of the atmosphere is associated with infectious diseases and this line of thinking developed further into the miasma theory of contagion . Air became contaminated with “miasmas”, poisonous vapors produced by putrefying organic matter and a person could become infected when miasmas invaded the body and disturbed its vital functions. In his manuscript. The real reason I’m here who needs demons when you have miasmas? Also, do you know how many self-published books are named miasma? Probably not why would you that would be stupid. I can tell you there are many. --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/supportSupport us!
28 minutes | Feb 6, 2020
History's Dirty Shorts: Influezna Epizootic 1872
Twitter: Seth4nerds Facebook: Uncensored Podcast Email: historyU.firstname.lastname@example.org Welcome to History Uncensored presents histories dirty shorts a series designed to make me feel less bad about putting out proper content frequently. These will be shorter episodes in between the main episodes of stuff that I find funny, interesting or topical. This week I find all of this funny interesting and topical I will be talking about the epizootic of 1878 and then a little about the spanish flu. So buckle up buttercup and prepared to be terrified as we discuss the coronavirus and the flu. See told you I’d be topical. The Corona Virus is making people freak out. Why? Because viruses are fucking terrifying, you generally can’t go get a get better pill like you can with bacterial infections. No, I don’t have the time or patience right now to explain the differences to you. Use the google machine. Both the seasonal flu and the dreaded coronavirus are contagious and cause respiratory illness. Deadly outbreaks in chickens were first reported in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., on Nov 15, 1872, the article says. Whole flocks usually got sick at the same time, with most or all of the birds dying. The disease struck prairie chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese as well as chickens. The illness went by many names, but newspapers most often called it "the chicken disease. The authors found evidence of the epizootic in 9 of the 22 states included in their search; they concluded that it was concentrated in the Northeast and Midwest and continued until Dec 15, 1872. All the avian outbreaks occurred in areas that were having, or had had within the previous 1 to 2 weeks, widespread equine flu. A number of local observers linked the avian disease to the equine disease and said that chickens got sick after being allowed to forage in stables that housed ill or recently ill horses. The researchers say it is impossible to conclusively identify any of the animal diseases of the time, because no materials suitable for microbial testing have been found. But the avian disease's strong association with equine flu and its clinical and epidemiologic features are "highly consistent with influenza, McCLURE, J. (1998). The Epizootic of 1872: Horses and Disease in a Nation in Motion. New York History, 79(1), 4-22. Retrieved February 6, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/23182287 Ungrateful man never appreciated my faithful services until now. When I am convalescent I hope he will treat me with more consideration and kindness. In the Fal of 1872 America’s horses became sick rapidly and in insane numbers. New York City became a spectacle of wretched-looking horses. It never lasted more than a few weeks in any given location but because of this equine sickness men were pulling fire carts through the city, oxen were seen on the streets and do good citizens hauled loaded streetcars through the avenues. The sickness in 1872 was none other than influenza. Not surprisingly it has the same effects on horses that it does on humans. Runny nose, malaise, coughing, sore throat, fever weakness you get the idea. --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/supportSupport us!
71 minutes | Jan 30, 2020
Theodora, Sex is just and Act
Email: Historyu.email@example.com Twitter: Seth4nerds Other Podcast: Dads and Dpads Don't forget to check out the podcast Wining about Herstory The history of women is dark, it is clouded by the minds and portents of men and their unjustified patriarchy for the entirety of human kind. Some listening may point out matriarchal societies in the past, Say hey but these things exist, these miniscule opportunities to women outside of the modern world existed. Yup, but any real historian of women understands that they moved the world, usually in unseen fashion. At the sides of great men, there they are women. They; the light in the shadow filtering the words of men destined to be heard throughout the world. I want to seek these opportunities that women have taken and generated waves that can still be felt today. Out topic today is none other Theodora, Theodora (theou dôron in Greek) means “gift of God”. I know I usually want to take women who were not royalty and highlight them, but Theodora is worth accentuating her role. From humble beginnings we have the empress Theodora the savior of Byzantium and Constantinople. One of the reasons I chose Theodora is that she seems to me a woman in my mind the modern sense of one. Independant, intelligent, shrewd, and compassionate. Theodora embodies so much we love in a story, the underdog, the beauty, darkness and light good and bad you get the fucking idea. A self made woman who conquered and empire in an age when women did very little. The two main sources I used are the books Theodora Empress of Byzantium and Theodora Actress, Empress, Saint --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/supportSupport us!
127 minutes | Nov 22, 2019
Spartacus Scourge of Rome
firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @Seth4nerds Spartacus: Even those who aren’t familiar with history have probably heard the name. It’s a name that has been passed down 2 millenia, over two thousand years the ultimate underdog story has capitulated in the minds of men. It has given some hope, it has assailed others with fear. What does the name Spartacus mean to you if anything? today I want to change things up a bit. Usually i focus the narrative on pretty much just facts and I hope that it is as interesting to you as it is to me. For those of you that do not know me personally which I assume is most of you something that I do in my spare time is Dungeons and Dragons, I know huge nerd. Beyond that as probably would surprise nobody listening to this podcast is I am a dungeon master (How can something sound so cool, so terrible and so utterly silly at the same time) Nevermind that’s for a different time. I am going to try and tell his story, Spartacus’ story as just that a narrative. Yes, it will hopefully have all of the facts within it but it might also contain the excitement and I will not refrain my tongue from the narrative as I normally do. If I did that Normally each episode would be at least two hours and I would never subject you guys to that. So here we go! Welcome to History Uncensored as always I am your host Seth Michels and today history can go “uck itself. Spartacus was born in Thrace and if you don’t know where that is I forgive you because “Thrace” is not a real fucking place anymore. Just as in a lot of cases with these old stories some of these places have gone through different names and 2000 years can be hard on historical accuracy. Also, I suck with names deal with it. Where was I… Oh yeah Thrace! That place geographically it is to the north and east of what we can think of as traditional Greece. Thrace was still very rural during the times of the Roman’s and during the 2nd and 3rd century BC were enemies of Rome. That was a long time ago in the story of Spartacus though. Our hero, our underdog was born sometime around 109bc when Thrace was firmly under the rule and “subjugation” of Rome. Interesting Cultural note on Thrace: They like to “uck The Thracians were polygamous as Menander puts it: "All Thracians, especially us and the Getae, are not much abstaining, because no one takes less than ten, eleven, twelve wives, some even more. If one dies and has only four or five wives he is called ill-fated, unhappy and unmarried." According to Herodotus virginity among women was not valued, and unmarried Thracian women could have sex with any man they wished to. Also of interesting note, Thracians were often depicted as having red or auburn hair. The gingers of the ancient world. I am not sure if that makes Spartacus more or less terrifying than what I envisioned him as. Thanks, Kubrick ya Prick. Thracians were a warrior people and valued bravery in battle, especially on horseback. They made excellent light cavalry units and were proficient with javelins and spears. Perhaps it was this early warfare training that brought out what would eventually be Spartacus the Gladiator and Spartacus the General. We don’t know shit about Spartacus’ upbringing I mean literal Dogshit about it. I know Fuckall- he was born and then suddenly we pick up history as an auxiliary unit within the Roman army- probably fighting Mithridates. Mithridates is important to Spartacus, probably not as a person or a friend or anything but Mithridates war on Rome really assisted in making Spartacus’ uprising the most successful Slave Revolt in history to that point. Also while we are talking about slave revolts, don’t worry guys ill get to Spartacus ginger big dick in a little bit. I want to talk about the two slave revolts that took place in the recent history in Spartacus’ time that contributed to the decisions that Rome made and the Decisions that Spartacus made. Important Revolt number 1 in Rom--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
59 minutes | Oct 23, 2019
Gladiators Part 2: Let the Games Begin
Twitter: Seth4nerdsFacebook: https://www.facebook.com/historyuncensoredpod/Email: Contact@historyuncensoredpod.com Gladiators part 2 Last week we Learned about who the gladiators were, as people. This week I want to Focus on the fights and who the gladiators were as combatants. Let the Games begin!Gladiators were not an undifferentiated group of sword fighters; they were divided up into categories based on different styles of armour, weapons and fighting. Sometimes it is hard to determine with certainty the type a gladiator depicted in surviving ancient representations. We must accept the possibility that occasionally variety in armour and weapons was allowed within a given gladiator category.166 For the most part, however, gladiators conformed generally to type. During the Republic, there were five known gladiator types: samnis (Samnite), gallus (Gaul), thraex (Thracian), provocator (‘challenger’) and eques (‘horseman’). The first three types are ethnic in origin, that is, their armour, weapons and style of fighting were derived from peoples who had engaged in war with the Romans: the Samnites, Gauls and Thracians. As noted earlier, these gladiator types must have developed from the practice of forcing prisoners of war from the same region to fight each other wearing their characteristic armour and employing their distinctive fighting styles. In time, the names of these three ethnic gladiatorial types no longer indicated warriors native to these regions, but merely a gladiatorial style. These ethnic gladiatorial types throughout the Republic kept the memory of Rome’s past military successes alive by re-enacting them in the arena. The Samnite and the Gaul, the earliest gladiator types we know of, did not survive much beyond the Republic; only the thraex survived into the imperial period and remained popular into late antiquity. Eques One type of gladiator easy to identify is the eques (‘horseman’), a lightly armed fighter who fought both on horseback and on the ground. It is clear that the equites were real horsemen. Cicero reports that the crowd’s hissing of an unpopular politician startled ‘the gladiators and their horses’.171 These gladiators with horses could only be the equites. An eques always fought an opponent of the same category.172 The only detailed description we have of the equites in a munus comes from a medieval author Isidore of Seville (seventh century AD), but his overall knowledge of gladiators accords well with the ancient sources, thus giving credence to the evidence he provides: “Of the several types of gladiators, the first contest involves the equestrians. Two equites, preceded by military standards, entered the arena, one from the west, the other from the east, riding on white horses, wearing smallish golden helmets and carrying light weapons.” Provocator The provocator(‘challenger’) was another gladiatorial type that originated in theRepublicandsurvivedintoimperialtimes.Ciceromentionstheprovocator in the same speech along with the equites and the Samnites.178 The provocator looked much more like a standard gladiator than did the eques. His visored helmet was not brimmed and had a neck guard in the back. He wore a loincloth (subligaculum), standard attire for all gladiators except for the eques, and a greave on his left leg. The shield of the provocateur was concave and rectangular. Perhaps his most identifiable feature was the breastplate he wore, held on the body by straps that met at the back, which protected the upper chest.179 No other type of gladiator wore any protective armour on the chest. Thraex The thraex was the sole survivor into the imperial period of the ethnic-based gladiators of the Republic. It is uncertain when the thraex became a gladiatorial type at Rome. There are two possibilities: (1) when Rome took Thracian mercenaries captive in the war against Perseus (171–167 BC), or (2) when many Thracians were taken as prisoners in the Mithdridatic wars in the 80s BC--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
75 minutes | Oct 18, 2019
Are you Not Entertained: Roman Slavery GLADIATORS
Contact@historyuncensoredpod.comhttps://www.twitter.com/seth4nerds Are you not Entertained? “What gladiator, when he has lain down in defeat and was ordered to receive the deathblow, drawn back his neck? So effective is the force of practice, preparation, and habit.” A history of gladiatorial Combat in ancient Rome, the people the places and the events. Gladiatorial combat was not unlike that depicted in ridley Scotts Gladiator. For this episode, I had to go back and rewatch it, one of my absolute favorites. This episode is mostly brought to you from one source with a few others mixed in, which to be honest made my life way (e) easier. The title of the book is Gladiators: violence and spectacle in Ancient Rome by Roger Dunkle. gladiator games from the very beginning of their history at Rome were closely associated with funerals. The connection between a gladiator show and honouring the memory of a dead wife might be hard for us to fathom. The presentation of gladiatorial combat was called by the Romans a munus, a Latin word that meant ‘duty’or ‘gift’ and by extension ‘funeral honours’, an obligation performed for, or a gift given to, the dead. Georges Ville says that throughout the Republic the word munus had the general meaning of ‘spectacle’, a show given as a gift to the people by Roman magistrates or even private citizens. Therefore, the word munus could also refer to the spectacles called ludi in honour of the gods, consisting of entertainments such as theatrical presentations and chariot racing, or to a gladiatorial spectacle, which until the late first century BC was given only in honour of the dead. By the early empire, the primary meaning of munus had become ‘gladiatorial combat’, driving out the general meaning of ‘spectacle’. The reason for this was the immense popularity of gladiator games. All spectacles were ‘gifts’ to the Roman people, but as Ville points out, gladiatorial combat was ‘the gift par excellence to the people’ The ancients thought that performing this spectacle was a duty to the dead, after they tempered it with a more humane atrocity. For, once upon a time, since it had been believed that the souls of the dead were propitiated by human blood, having purchased captives or slaves of bad character, they sacrificed them as part of funeral ritual. Later they decided to mask the impiety as entertainment. And so those they had purchased and trained in what arms and in whatever way they could, only that they might learn to be killed, they soon exposed to death on the appointed day of the funeral. Thus, they sought consolation for death in homicide. This was the origin of the munus. however, categorically disassociates human sacrifice from Roman funerals: ‘there is no evidence at all that the Romans at any period thought that any such human sacrifices were appropriate in connection with funerals’. Gladiators with their intense desire for victory and readiness to accept death only as a last resort did not make good sacrificial victims. One essential requirement of an effective sacrifice was the complicity, either real or fictional, of the victim. Moreover, not every gladiatorial match ended in death; in fact, as we shall see, many did not One cannot help but think, especially during the Republic when there were constant wars, that spectators at a munus were reminded of Roman military success as they watched gladiatorial combat in the amphitheater, particularly with the appearance of gladiator types called the Samnite, Gaul, and Thracian, all recalling one-time enemies of Rome One thing to remember always, these were people captured or enslaved by Rome's quest for power, land, and domination. Always remember that these were people, slaves some of them ex-military but some civilians. They did not all, deserve this type of death. There is little doubt, however, that gladiatorial games, even if they were not strictly speaking human sacrifice, were in origin funeral offerings in honour of--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
61 minutes | Oct 10, 2019
Roman Slavery Part 1
Twitter: Seth4NerdsContact@historyuncensoredpod.comFacebook: Uncensored Podcast NetworkA few things before we start. Trouble with sources Digging deep It’s no fun being a slave. And it’s not just the work But knowing that you’re a slave and that nothing can change it. Slave character in Plautus, Amphitryo c. 200 B.C.1 I also want to really emphasize slavery as a theory and practice, these will be important concepts to understanding slavery as we continue down the path. Some of these concepts will probably be hard to listen to, I get that. These concepts the difficult, the morbid, the disgusting facts are a part of history and life today. I will be getting to modern slavery at a much later time, but this stroll down history lane has an endpoint. We will finish the history of slavery and talk about slave theory in modern times and I want every listener to be prepared for the bombs I will drop and how they might affect your life and the way you think about how modern society is run. The topics that are on this show I have tried to pick because I want you as well as myself to better understand the incessant problems we face today. Such as Slavery, Climate crisis, the Constitution, Male privilege, Western Ideological Privilege etc. Slavery is an economic and social problem, it is often written by the slaver. It is sometimes very difficult to get proper evidence on what it may have been like to be a slave or part of the slave system because of this. The one thing to remember is that slaves were people, I will be discussing them as property quite frequently. Know that in my heart of hearts I do not mean this an injustice and only do it for historical decorum. Slaves were people and they had dreams and aspirations. They felt, betrayal, love, spite, hatred, happiness and every other emotion. There are still slaves today, there are still people with no visceral rights within their own society. That is the reason I do this, so we can remember their stories and try and understand the gruesome nature of human consciousness and it’s needed for power and subversion. The same story has played out millions of times in history, to better understand today we need a realistic comprehension of the atrocities committed yesterday. When I say one slave society was better than another because of x, understand that no slave society was good. The literal owning of human property is appalling to a degree that should require no explanation. I hope that you as a listener follow me down this path of knowledge and understand that I do so out of as pure of heart and mind as possible. What I say hurts me sometimes, it hurts to talk about this shit. Know I will also be talking quite extensively in an episode of women's rights in Rome and what that meant for the future of women in western society. That talk is for a future date, for now, let us instead focus on the brutal reality that was ancient Rome for a non-manumitted slave. Roman Slavery: A Study of Roman Society and Its Dependence on Slaves Andrew Burks Little is known about the origins of slavery in Rome. However, it was common in ancient societies to keep slaves. The likely origin of Rome as a small village, or collection of villages, lends itself easily to early slavery. It would not have been uncommon for even a small village to maintain a few slaves; captured from another local village or perhaps bought through trade. However, there are a few references to slavery before the third century BC, and those speak of small-scale slavery. Only the extremely rich could afford these slaves, and even then, they could only afford a few slaves. In 225 B.C., there were an estimated 600,000 slaves in Roman Italy, but only 194 years later that number grew to approximately two million. This included growth from 15% to 35% of the total population.3 These numbers reveal the extent of the institution of slavery in Roman society. In a study of Roman tombstones, nearly three times --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
25 minutes | Sep 25, 2019
Introducing Roman Slavery
Email: email@example.comTwitter: @Seth4Nerds Welcome to history Uncensored, the best place to dig into the history nobody wanted to tell you. This is an uncensored show, I will probably share some things that will upset you. My opinions on things will probably upset you.I don’t really care, history shouldn’t be censored, we shouldn’t be taught just the “rosey” parts. Rome is a great example of how a civilization built upon the backs of slaves and farmers is remembered as one of the greatest in history. I bet if you ask anyone what civilization had the greatest impact on the western world I am very certain they would unequivocally say that it was the Roman Empire.The briefest chronological overview of the Roman Empire coming your wayThe history of the Roman Empire can be divided into three distinct periods: The Period of Kings (625-510 BC), Republican Rome (510-31 BC), and Imperial Rome (31 BC – AD 476).Founding (c. 625 BC)Rome was founded around 625 BC in the areas of ancient Italy known as Etruria and Latium. It is thought that the city-state of Rome was initially formed by Latium villagers joining together with settlers from the surrounding hills in response to an Etruscan invasion. It is unclear whether they came together in defense or as a result of being brought under Etruscan rule. Archaeological evidence indicates that a great deal of change and unification took place around 600 BC which likely led to the establishment of Rome as a true city.Period of Kings (625-510 BC)The first period in Roman history is known as the Period of Kings, and it lasted from Rome’s founding until 510 BC. During this brief time Rome, led by no fewer than six kings, advanced both militaristically and economically with increases in physical boundaries, military might, and production and trade of goods including oil lamps. Politically, this period saw the early formation of the Roman constitution. The end of the Period of Kings came with the decline of Etruscan power, thus ushering in Rome’s Republican Period.Republican Rome (510-31 BC)Rome entered its Republican Period in 510 BC. No longer ruled by kings, the Romans established a new form of government whereby the upper classes ruled, namely the senators and the equestrians, or knights. However, a dictator could be nominated in times of crisis. In 451 BC, the Romans established the “Twelve Tables,” a standardized code of laws meant for public, private, and political matters.Rome continued to expand through the Republican Period and gained control over the entire Italian peninsula by 338 BC. It was the Punic Wars from 264-146 BC, along with some conflicts with Greece, that allowed Rome to take control of Carthage and Corinth and thus become the dominant maritime power in the Mediterranean.Soon after, Rome’s political atmosphere pushed the Republic into a period of chaos and civil war. This led to the election of a dictator, L. Cornelius Sulla, who served from 82-80 BC. Following Sulla’s resignation in 79 BC, the Republic returned to a state of unrest. While Rome continued to be governed as a Republic for another 50 years, the shift to Imperialism began to materialize in 60 BC when Julius Caesar rose to power.By 51 BC, Julius Caesar had conquered Celtic Gaul and, for the first time, Rome’s borders had spread beyond the Mediterranean region. Although the Senate was still Rome’s governing body, its power was weakening. Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC and replaced by his heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian) who ruled alongside Mark Antony. In 31 BC Rome overtook Egypt which resulted in the death of Mark Antony and left Octavian as the unchallenged ruler of Rome. Octavian assumed the title of Augustus and thus became the first emperor of Rome.Imperial Rome (31 BC-AD 476)Rome’s Imperial Period was its last, beginning with the rise of Rome’s first emperor in 31 BC and lasting until the fall of Rome in AD 476. During this period, Rome saw several decad--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
25 minutes | Sep 18, 2019
The President who Forked America, yet left it wanting more
President Ronald Fudging ReaganContact@historyuncensoredpod.comtwitter.com/seth4nerdsFacebook Uncensored PodsThe President who fucked America, Yet left it wanting more. Recap Quotes and other skullduggery from this podcast's favorite president. "I am not worried about the deficit. It is big enough to take care of itself."—President Ronald Reagan "Well, I learned a lot...I went down to (Latin America) to find out from them and (learn) their views. You'd be surprised. They're all individual countries."—President Ronald Reagan"Facts are stupid things."—Ronald Reagan, at the 1988 Republican National Convention, attempting to quote John Adams, who said, "Facts are stubborn things"We were told four years ago that 17 million people went to bed hungry every night. Well, that was probably true. They were all on a diet. Every morning Nancy and I turn to see what he has to say about people of our respective birth signs.Regarding his friend Hollywood astrologer Carroll Righter, in Where's the Rest of Me? (1965)I would have voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964.As quoted in Los Angeles Times (17 June 1966)I favor the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and it must be enforced at the point of a bayonet, if necessary.As quoted in The Los Angeles Times (20 October 1965)Government is like a baby. An alimentary canal with a big appetite at one end and no responsibility at the other.We must reject the idea that every time a law's broken, society is guilty rather than the lawbreaker. It is time to restore the American precept that each individual is accountable for his actions.If it's to be a bloodbath, let it be now. Appeasement is not the answer. On what to do about student disruptions at UC Berkeley, quoted in the Los Angeles Times (8 April 1970); shortly thereafter, Reagan said: "I certainly don't think there should be a bloodbath on campus or anywhere else. It was just a figure of speech." as quoted by United Press International Politics is supposed to be the second oldest profession. I have come to realize that it bears a very close resemblance to the firstAnd I have to point out that government doesn't tax to get the money it needs, government always needs the money it gets [Evolution] has in recent years been challenged in the world of science and is not yet believed in the scientific community to be as infallible as it once was believed. But if it was going to be taught in the schools, then I think that also the biblical theory of creation, which is not a theory but the biblical story of creation, should also be taught. Approximately 80 percent of our air pollution stems from hydrocarbons released by vegetation. So let's not go overboard in setting and enforcing tough emission standards for man-made sources. I have flown twice over Mount St. Helens. I'm not a scientist and I don't know the figures, but I have a suspicion that one little mountain out there, in these last several months, has probably released more sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere than has been released in the last ten years of automobile driving or things of that kind I believe with all my heart that our first priority must be world peace, and that use of force is always and only a last resort, when everything else has failed, and then only with regard to our national security Thomas Jefferson made a comment about the Presidency and age. He said that one should not worry about one's exact chronological age in reference to his ability to perform one's task. And ever since he told me that, I stopped worrying. I have left orders to be awakened at any time in case of national emergency, even if I'm in a cabinet meeting You'd be surprised how much being a good actor pays off. Responding to a question from students at Shanghai's University of Fudan as to which experiences best prepared him for the presidency (30 April 1984), cited by Paul Slansky, The Clothes Have No Emperor The simple truth is, 'I don't remember — period.If a tax hik--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
144 minutes | Sep 11, 2019
Remembering Reagan: Histories Idiots Part 3
"By the end of his term, 138 Reagan administration officials had been convicted, had been indicted, or had been the subject of official investigations for official misconduct and/or criminal violations. In terms of number of officials involved, the record of his administration was the worst ever." first, public office definitions specify corruption as deviation from legal and public duty norms for the purposes of private gain. Second, market system definitions define corruption as part of the rational utility maximizing behavior of public officials. Third, public interest definitions view corruption as the betrayal of some broad "public interest from p. 184,Sleep-Walking Through History: America in the Reagan Years, by Haynes Johnson, (1991, Doubleday),During his time as president, he presided over significant scandals and debacles. The Iran Contra AffairDepartment of housing and urban development grant riggingLobbying ScandalsEPA scandalDebategateWedtech Operation Ill windThe Big SleepThe savings and loans crisisThe Nuclear War Scare!Iran–Contra affairMain article: Iran–Contra affair The lasting memory I have of this research are just a few of reagan’s words- “I don’t recall that” or “Sorry, i can’t recall”“The common ingredients of the Iran and Contra policies were secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law...the United States simultaneously pursued two contradictory foreign policies — a public one and a secret one” (Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the IranContra Affair)(3)The most well-known and politically damaging of the scandals came to light in November 1986, when Ronald Reagan conceded that the United States had sold weapons to the Islamic Republic of Iran, as part of a largely unsuccessful effort to secure the release of six U.S. citizens being held hostage in Lebanon. It was also disclosed that some of the money from the arms deal with Iran had been covertly and illegally funneled into a fund to aid the right-wing Contras counter-revolutionary groups seeking to overthrow the socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. The Iran–Contra affair, as it became known, did serious damage to the Reagan presidency. The investigations were effectively halted when President George H. W. Bush (Reagan's vice president) pardoned Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger before his trial began.Caspar Weinberger, United States Secretary of Defense, was pardoned before trial produced by George H. W. BushElliott Abrams agreed to cooperate with investigators and in return was allowed to plead guilty to two misdemeanor charges instead of facing possible felony indictments. He was sentenced to two years probation and one hundred hours of community service. He was also pardoned by Bush on December 24, 1992 along with five other former Reagan Administration officials who had been implicated in connection with Iran–Contra.National Security Adviser Robert C. McFarlane, pleaded guilty to four misdemeanors and was sentenced to two years probation and 200 hours of community service and was ordered to pay a $20,000 fine. He was also pardoned by Bush.Alan D. Fiers was the Chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's Central American Task Force. He pleaded guilty in 1991 to two counts of withholding information from Congress and was sentenced to one year of probation and one hundred hours of community service. He was also pardoned by Bush.Richard R. Miller – Partner with Oliver North in IBC, an Office of Public Diplomacy front group, convicted of conspiracy to defraud the United States.Clair George was Chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's Division of Covert Operations under President Reagan. George was convicted of lying to two congressional committees in 1986. He was pardoned by Bush.Richard Secord was indicted on nine felony counts of lying to Congress and pleaded guilty to a felony charge of lying to Congress.Thomas G. Clines was convicted of --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
32 minutes | Aug 30, 2019
Missing Link? The new face of human Ancestry
hat was a clickbait title, any time we find new pieces of a skeleton from pre-human history it really is a missing link.Terminology to knowHominin– Any species of early human that is more closely related to humans than chimpanzees, including modern humans themselves. (At this point, this includes the genus homo, Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, and Paranthropus. These genus’ can and do change as various new fossils are found, which either add new genus’, or cast doubt on existing ones. Homo and australopithecus are the two most definite)Hominid– All modern AND extinct GREAT apes. Gorillas, chimps, orangs and humans, and their immediate ancestors. Not gibbons.Evolution– The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth. (really basic, click the link to get more info)The fossil in question was a male hominin found in Ethiopia. There are some claims that this is the oldest known ancestor and well that isn’t true. We can’t say for sure that this is even a direct ancestor of ours.What is a Missing Link?A thing that is needed in order to complete a series, provide continuity, or gain complete knowledge.” they are the missing link between prog rock and punk rock”a hypothetical fossil form intermediate between two living forms, especially between humans and apes.Every fossil we find from pre-human bipedal remains is a missing link. It provides a record of how we as humans possibly evolved.Wait, what?That is right, these fossils are amazing and provide a unique glimpse into the life of our early ancestors or so we believe. Here is the thing, because DNA has such a short half-life there is no way to prove that these particularly ancient hominins are our ancestors.You see now that every piece of the fossil record is important to understanding our past. Each piece gives us a clue to the final puzzle, which to be honest is probably unlikely that we ever truly know. That does not make their discovery any less exciting though.Here is what we do know, they are among the first primates to walk on two feet across great distances. This is both an advantage (carrying things, bigger brain, tool use etc.)it is also a disadvantage too, do your knees and ankles hurt frequently? How about your hips or your back? Our weight and weight distribution put a lot of pressure on certain parts of our body. Especially in the lower back, hips, and knees. That is a lot to ask of any part f the body. These would be parts that traditionally seen in Apes and Great Ape species that would be supported by the arms and shoulders as well.This is because pieces of bone from that long ago are really rare and difficult to find and once we find them they are difficult to classify. This skull though is a very interesting find as it is mostly intact. (which is incredibly rare) Most bones from more than a million years or so ago are usually only fragments of the whole.This was nearly an entire skull, and the skull can tell us so much about how this bi-ped lived. Bipedal, Hominin, Ancient human; I guess I don’t really care too much about how you say it.There is a very rich history dating from several million years ago all the up to when humans first presented themselves in the archaeological record.Here is the abstract from the study, Don’t worry about the big words I promise to break it down for you.The cranial morphology of the earliest known hominins in the genus Australopithecus remains unclear. The oldest species in this genus (Australopithecus Anamensis, specimens of which have been dated to 4.2–3.9 million years ago) is known primarily from jaws and teeth, whereas younger species (dated to 3.5–2.0 million years ago) are typically represented by multiple skulls. Here we describe a nearly complete hominin cranium from Woranso-Mille (Ethiopia) that we date to 3.8 million years ago. We assign this cranium to A. Anamensis on the basis of the taxonomically a--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
70 minutes | Aug 27, 2019
Histories Idiots Remembering Reagan: Reaganomics History Uncensored Ep. 10
History Uncensored Ep. 10Welcome to History Uncensored presenting Histories Idiots.Reaganomics, what it was, its impact and the results of policy.Due to the extensive list of resources for this episode, you can find them all at this link. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1JHTMzfEjy2hXn61f–3IFwKA_K-7t7OUEnjoy!What the Freak is Reaganomics?“This Administration’s objective will be a healthy, vigorous, growing economy that provides equal opportunities for all Americans, with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination. Putting America back to work means putting all Americans back to work. Ending inflation means freeing all Americans from the terror of runaway living costs. All must share in the productive work of this ’new beginning,’ and all must share in the bounty of a revived economy.” ~ReaganHe is remembered for a Booming Economy, why? Please tell me why I couldn’t find stuff that supported this argument especially when you begin looking at the hard numbers.When we take a hard look at the numbers nothing holds up, well not nothing the wealthy hold up. They literally are the only group that saw their wages increase in the 1980s. Everyone else, Freak em. They don’t need money all that money up top will just kind of fall down to the bottom.NEWS FLASH! that stuff doesn’t work. It didn’t work then and it sure as hell is not working now. I’m not here to argue politics I just tell you about the facts, about historiographical conjecture that ruins the image you hold in your mind of history. So enjoy this episode of Reaganomics as I tear down that Freaking wall like an East German trying to escape.He is remembered for all of the wrong reasons and I see us on a similar path and we need to stand up and make a change.ReaganomicsSorry, I went on a bit of a bender or rant or whatever there, I want to get back to the topic at hand explaining to you in the best try and make sense of this skullduggery way as possible.Reaganomics is a type of economic policy that is based on myth. This idea that you can increase spending and lower taxes and somehow the economy will get a boost and you will erase the national debt.Too much government was the problem, too many taxes, too much regulation on banks and places of business. The individual has the right o their own path without government and policies standing in the way of achieving their dreams. All of that sounds great in practice, doesn’t it? No wonder he won a second term.It was sweeping reform, it was juvenile and hastily done and has set back this country’s conservative economic policy more than 40 years.Don’t worry I will go over each of the administration’s legacies and decipher the data and present it to you in a hopefully meaningful way. We now know what they were trying to accomplish but let’s discuss the reality of his policies and their legacy impact.Here is what Reagan’s policies did.Reduced the top marginal income tax bracket from 70% to 28%Lowered corporate income tax from 48% to 34%During Reagan’s presidency, the federal debt held by the public nearly tripled in nominal terms, from $738 billion to $2.1 trillion. This led to the U.S. moving from the world’s largest international creditor to the world’s largest debtor nation. Reagan described the new debt as the “greatest disappointment” of his presidency.The federal deficit as a percentage of GDP rose from 2.5% of GDP in the fiscal year 1981 to a peak of 5.7% of GDP in 1983, then fell to 2.7% GDP in 1989.Total federal outlays averaged of 21.8% of GDP from 1981–88, versus the 1974–1980 average of 20.1% of GDP. This was the highest of any President from Carter through Obama.Total federal revenues averaged 17.7% of GDP from 1981–88, versus the 1974–80 average of 17.6% of GDP.Federal individual income tax revenues fell from 8.7% of GDP in 1980 to a trough of 7.5% of GDP in 1984, then rose to 7.8% of GDP in 1988.The Numbers we hear.During Raegan’s administration, these are the number--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
85 minutes | Aug 6, 2019
History Uncensored Ep 9: Remembering Reagan Part 1
Remembering ReaganHistories Idiots Ronald Reagan was born February 6th, 1911 and will forever be immortalized as the 40th president of the united states of America. I have not done such a recent figure in history yet, but I believe that some of the mistakes that Reagan made during his time as president of the united states sent us into a spiral and pushed us toward one of the most unequal periods of life in the United States. He is often looked back as a good president, his economics plans seemed to have worked and he really took to the war on drugs. He told Gorbachev to tear down that wall and many other Reaganisms over the course of his presidency. There are certain aspects that some, or most do not like to remember about his time in the white house. We don’t like to remember the war on Race, the deregulation of financial institutions which lead to the collapse of the economy in 2008 and 1990. We don’t like to remember the arms deals with Iran and the money sent to fund central American guerilla warfare. Let us look first to who Ronald Reagan was, he was a small-town man born to poor parents in Illinois. He eventually became an actor, a motivational speaker then as a politician gaining fame for his “time for choosing” speech in 1964. I will have the audio available to listen to on the website, if nothing else it provides a look at both his personal motivations and can be looked at as the beginning of his corruption in government. His opinions shared in that speech change drastically by the time he reaches the oval office. I do not blame the man for failing to reach the white house, I do not want to be seen as a miser of history and distortion of facts so before I go any further along this path I want to reiterate a few things. This is a podcast about Real “history” I can not say fact because most of history is observation and personal reflection on the topic. But this history, the stuff I will share with you today and in the following few episodes are facts. You can hate me, I am not here to be liked. You can try and discredit me, good luck I have no credit anywhere except maybe with my wife and children. You can check my sources four or five times but do not blame me for sharing important truths to the public, do not blame me for your closed mind. Look instead to your neighbors, your friends, your colleagues and all those whom you love and cherish and relish in all of the opportunity we as humanity have in sharing unique ideas that can expand our mindset. Being stuck in the left or right has gotten us into this mess. We need to find a way out, so I want to start with the truth; not as I see it but as history should and with a speculative eye for detail does see it.Before 1962 Reagan was a registered Democrat, then registering with the republican party became governor of California. In 1967 where he repeatedly got into trouble for solving problems with violence, including an incident which is remembered as Bloody Thursday where 111 police officers were injured and one student University of California, Berkely student was killed. This only happened after Reagan Sent in the police officers during a peaceful protest, originally to discuss the Arab-Isreali conflict. “If it takes a bloodbath, let’s get it over with. No More appeasement” Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president. By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work," he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state. He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxationHe failed to run for President of the United States twice before finally being elected following Jimmy Carter’s failed presidency. First, on the list, Reagan’s war on drugs and holy shit was this a problem. A little background then the goods. President Nixon declared the war on drugs in 1971 af--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
52 minutes | Jul 24, 2019
History Uncensored Ep. 8 Wu Zetian The Dragon Empress
To better understand Wu Zhou, or Wu Zetians rise in power in the 7th century A.D. let us take a quick trip down memory lane in china during that period starting with the Sui dynasty. A lesson on women in Chinese history, their roles and the patriarchal society of ancient and modern Chinese culture. http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat3/sub9/entry-5562.html According to the Encyclopedia of Sexuality: “In its earliest history, China was a matriarchal society, until Confucius and Mencius defined the superior-inferior relationship between men and women as heaven-ordained more than two thousand years ago. In traditional Chinese society, women should observe the Three Obediences and the Four Virtues. Women were to be obedient to the father and elder brothers when young, to the husband when married, and to the sons when widowed. Thus the Chinese women were controlled and dominated by men from cradle to grave. The ideal of feminine behavior created a dependent being, at once inferior, passive, and obedient. Thus for more than 2,000 years, for the vast majority of Chinese women, belonging to a home was the only means to economic survival, but they had no right to select a husband, let alone the right to divorce or to remarry if widowed. They had no right to their physical bodies. Those who defied such institutionalized oppression were persecuted, ostracized, and sometimes driven to suicide. “The functional importance of all women in traditional China lay in their reproductive role. In a patriarchal and authoritarian society, this reproductive function took the form of reproducing male descendents. Since descent was patrilineal, a woman's position within her natal family was temporary and of no great importance. The predominant patrilineal household model, in combination with early marriage, meant that a young girl often left home before she was of significant labor value to her natal family. Hence, education or development of publicly useful skills for a girl was not encouraged in any way. Marriage was arranged by the parents with the family interests of continuity by bearing male children and running an efficient household in mind. Her position and security within her husband's family remained ambiguous until she produced male heirs. [Then she might become manipulative and exploitive. (Lau)] In addition to the wife's reproductive duties, the strict sexual division of labor demanded that she undertake total responsibility for childcare, cooking, cleaning, and other domestic tasks. Women were like slaves or merchandise." In a traditional male' dominated Confucian family, the eldest son is held in the highest esteem and is responsible for carrying on the family name and lineage, keeping property in the family and presiding over ancestral rites. The preference for boy babies over girls in Asian society is tied up in part in the Confucian belief that a male heir is necessary to carry on the family name, provide leadership for the family, and take Confucius famously said that a good woman is an illiterate one. Women often suffered under the Confucian system. Not only are they ordered around by men, they are often ordered around by each other in very vicious or mean ways. Older sisters have traditionally pushed their younger sisters around with impunity, and mothers of sons are notorious for treating their daughters-in-law like servants. “When walking, don't turn your head; when talking, don't open your mouth wide; when sitting, don't move your knees; when standing, don't rustle your skirts; when happy, don't exult with loud laughter; when angry, don't raise your voice. The inner and outer quarters are each distinct; the sexes should be segregated. Don't peer over the outer wall or go beyond the outer courtyard. If you have to go outside, cover your face; if you peep outside, conceal yourself as much as possible. Do not be on familiar terms with men outside the family; have nothing to do with women of bad character. Esta--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
43 minutes | Jul 17, 2019
Ancient Greek Slave State: History Uncensored ep 7
History Uncensored The Classical Association of the Middle West and South, Inc. (CAMWS) Ancient Greece (slavery) Overview, philosophers examples, and life of slavesThe Perfect Machine: To live this life your best life, a purpose you needFor at home a perfect machine, plowing seed You can call it by name, you can call it family.At the end of the day, it knows the game. This machine…Its burdened life your desire, your wants feel free But: What if I told you though this machine has a voice?What if I told you.this machine… It sleeps, it loves, it laughs, it fears… the voice, its voiceto have a voice! History of Trialed trails of shaking hands grown old and frail.Yet, You can sell it; you can buy it, hate it, feed it, make greed from itBut in the end, they need it. To live this your best life, it’s this, a slave you needAt home a perfect machine, plowing seed The collar heavy, burden great, its shoulders weighedIt ends like all end, of earth and stone decayedA Brief History Of Ancient Greece Greek history can be said to have started around 1600 BC, when the Indo-Europeans invaded the Greek mainland. The so-called Indo-Europeans were the group of people sharing the same language but not necessarily of the same ethnic race, who lived in the region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. They started migrating beginning around 4000 BC. Some migrated toward Europe and some toward Iran and India. A branch of the migrants moved into Greece around 1600 BC. People had lived in Greece for a long time before that event and an advanced Minoan culture had flourished in the Aegean islands, centering in Crete. These indigenous people are believed to have been of a different race from the Indo-Europeans, both culturally and linguistically. The palace of Knossos in the northern part of Crete, excavated by Arthur Evans in 1899, was the center of the Minoan civilization. The title Kamaeu, occurs in the Pylos and Knossos tablets. It refers probably to specific persons and not to titles. The persons that bore this title belonged to the lower social classes and included a "slave of the god" and a baker. The words doero and doera of the palace texts mean the slaves or the slaves who worked in the service of different individuals or the palace. Ancient Greek Class systemmale citizens - three groups: landed aristocrats (aristoi), poorer farmers (periokoi) and the middle class (artisans and traders).semi-free labourers (e.g the helots of Sparta).women - belonging to all of the above male groups but without citizen rights.children - categorised as below 18 years generally.slaves - the douloi who had civil or military duties.foreigners - non-residents (xenoi) or foreign residents (metoikoi) who were below male citizens in status. Conversely, there are no records of a large-scale Greek slave revolt comparable to that of Spartacus in Rome. It can probably be explained by the relative dispersion of Greek slaves, which would have prevented any large-scale planning. Slave revolts were rare, even in Rome. Individual acts of rebellion of slaves against their master, though scarce, are not unheard of; a judicial speech mentions the attempted murder of his master by a boy slave, not 12 years old. From Unlike Christian ethics, labor itself was not regarded as a virtue in classicalGreece. There were two reasons for this. First, it was believed that citizens should have as much free time as possible so that they could devote their time to participa-tion in government. (Note that a Greek word for labor is ascholia, a negation of scholè, leisure.) Second, it was believed that it was not good for a free man to workfor others. LabourersGreek society included a significantly larger proportion of labourers than slaves. These were semi-free workers, wholly dependent on their employer. The most famous example is the helot class of Sparta. These dependents were not the property of a parti--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/seth-michels66/support Support us!
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