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Hanging with History
37 minutes | May 20, 2022
The Age of Walpole; Part 1, Sacheverall and the Sinking Fund, a 2nd 100 Years War interlude
The Church is in Danger! Her Holy Communion rent and divided by factious and schismatical impostors. Her primitive worship profaned and abused, her sacraments prostituted !Sacheverell, arguably the first modern type celebrity, illustrates the risks to political and social stability still faced by England.The nowadays obscure Robert Walpole is our gateway to understanding social and political developments in England through the 1740's. He reduced the religious temperature of the country despite leading a party that was ideologically inclined to inflame it. He built social and financial stability and helped create constitutional norms the envy of Enlightened Europe.
41 minutes | May 6, 2022
War of the Quadruple Alliance, part 2; Robert Filmer?
The Chicken War is covered as part of the War of the Quadruple Alliance as well as the more consequential Armada of 1719.Cardinal Alberoni is chucked out of Madrid when the Duke of Berwick invades at the head of a French army.The true important consequence of the War of the Quadruple Alliance is to drive the early Georges away from their natural allies the Tories into the loving embrace of Robert Walpole and the Whigs. This will actually have consequences for the miracle.
45 minutes | Apr 22, 2022
War of the Quadruple Alliance Part 1
Peace treaties do not always work out the way they are intended, especially if they are complex and take time to implement. The many treaties comprising the peace of Utrecht are like this.Spain is the main loser after the War of the Spanish Succession, and an Italian Cardinal seeks to remedy the situation by going to war with the 3 greatest powers in Europe. You might think Spain is well past the point where they could win a war with France or England or the Empire, and fighting all three at once is sheer insanity. But it happened anyway. Partly, Alberoni was counting on western Europe's reluctance to get into another war so soon after the last peace of exhaustion. When he conquered Sardinia in 1717, Europe offered him a good deal, when he went on to take Sicily in 1718, and tried to overthrow the French Regency...everything spun out of control. But that's OK, because Charles XII would save him...
42 minutes | Apr 8, 2022
France the Enemy; France and the American Revolution.
We look at the factors that drove France to join the American Revolution despite the obvious ideological problems with a divine right monarchy supporting a revolution. For France this was an opportunistic war, with the seemingly perfect chance to humiliate the ancestral enemy. And as Louis XIV put it, the wars were all about who could control the Indes trade. Rather than the usual coverage of French involvement in the 13 colonies, we cover the sugar trade, war int eh Caribbean and the Armada of 1779 and the Spanish defeat at the Great Siege of Gibraltar. France made a serious bid to conquer the British sugar islands in the Caribbean, the attempted invasion of Jamaica is covered, which was ended by the Battle of the Saintes. We also cover the Armada of 1779, yet another attempt to invade Britain. And what lessons did the French learn from this war? What did the British learn?
33 minutes | Mar 25, 2022
85. France, the Enemy: The Royal Repression
We cover the repressive powers of the royal government and some of the reactions to it.Some of the issues are common to all autocracies, such as oppression that backfires and concessions that just lead to further concessions. But some are quite unique to France. The justice retenue, the tax related quartering of troops, the censorship of books, with the unexpected strategic responses from writers. We also cover 6 letters from highly placed people to the kings that detail many of the problems caused by the kings.
27 minutes | Mar 11, 2022
84. France: The Enemy, France and the Origins of the Industrial Revolution
This episode measures France against the 5 standard theories for the origins of the Industrial Revolution.1. Special unique culture that accorded dignity and freedom of action to the middle classes. This is McCloskey and Paul Slack among others. Clear fail.2. The production function idea that high wages drives investment in labor saving machinery which kicks off a self reinforcing cycle, that is the miracle. The idea is associated with Robert Allen, though well developed by many. France did not have high wages, though they did have access to and use all the english technology. Clear fail.3. This is the culturally neutral idea that all strive for betterment. It is just that rapacious elites destroy incentives to betterment. Very popular idea, very attractive, with some good dark humor embedded in it.4. This is the idea associated with Joel Mokyr that the supply of technical skills and knowledge among the population makes invention and improvements possible and self reinforcing. Often seen in contrast to theory 2. Despite this being episode 84, with have less background knowledge on this theory than the others. Still, given French high science, France is number 2, and French military engineering is superb. This is where France does best among the theories.5. The kitchen sink theory. You need all these things working for you to have the Industrial Revolution. That's why we never had one before. Then we bring up some theories from historians. And discuss for a while the idea that it was the period of Puritan/middle class rule in England after the ECW that was so important.
62 minutes | Feb 25, 2022
France: The Enemy, Part 6, Why Revolution?
The Cabinet Noir is the most interesting part of this show. This mail reading, code breaking part of the regime was part of their effort to deal with the fact that public opinion was just very difficult to discern. Tocqueville's analysis of the causes of Revolution suggests that the easing of oppression is a major cause of the Revolution. We use this intro to begin our examination of the ancien regime. The personnel policy of the kings seems to change once Louis XIV hits middle age. Colbert is dead and he is the last of the great ministers. Our look at the regime includes what data they had available, including the Cabinet Noir, what theories they used to try to make sense of their world. We also look at the more democratic elements of the regime, from village assemblies to the provincial Estates.And we are back to humiliating peasants as Harald explains some of the workings of the legal system.
52 minutes | Feb 11, 2022
82. France: The Enemy, Part 5, Psychology of Peasants and Nobles
We continue our social history with a look at the Psychology of Peasants and Nobles, with Jon Elster as our guide.For nobles we track some of the thornier problems of noble identity, the cult of ancestry, its implications for personal behavior and its sometimes self destructive nature. We also have a lighter look at the obsession over wit and the bon mot. "The best lands require manure." And the relevance of Amadis of Gaul.For peasants we are mainly looking at the difficulties of life and the sources of the 10,000 documented incidents of peasant violence.
40 minutes | Jan 28, 2022
81. France: The Enemy Part 4, 2nd 100 Years War Part 11
This is social history in some depth. We look at the role of preasance among and within social classes. Presance is identified as a major force limiting collective action that could have allowed for more reform before the Revolution. Status issues are always complex, and important, but in the ancien regime it goes to 11.There is also discussion of how the Matthew Principal applies to the peasants, how "it's expensive to be poor." So how does this work out in practice in the French countryside?With Camie Harald goes into Remonstrances, in probably more detail than anyone has ever wanted to know. Also differences in life expectancy between peasants and nobles are covered and the curious fact that people stopped reading Rousseau means that in our time people are not as aware of the various miseries of the French peasant.
49 minutes | Jan 14, 2022
France: The Enemy, Part 3, 2nd 100 Years War Part 10
We cover the social continuities and the changes in France's ancien regime that happened under the Louis XIV through Louis XVI before the French Revolution.
49 minutes | Dec 31, 2021
79. France :The Enemy ; part 2
The 2nd Hundred Years War arc continues.Louis XIV's Geo Strategy and and an exploration of the French government's financial system. A strange combination of topics? But no, the one explains necessary features and failures of the other.France is remarkably backward in financial matters compared to the Netherlands and Great Britain during the war of the Spanish Succession. And yet France has interesting financial innovations including Bearer instruments (can you say Die Hard and Beverly Hills Cop?). They also have two important financial centers in Paris and Lyon. But France suffers deeply from moral hazard, the principal-agent distortion, rent seeking and asymmetric information.Guy Rowlands is the primary source for this episode.Raoul Sunset does conversations with Camie where we discuss Necker, but mainly focus on financial issues.
60 minutes | Dec 17, 2021
78. France; The Enemy; Part 1
An intro to France during the reign of Louis XIV. The focus this episode is the peasantry and the nobility of the sword. For the peasants, life may not be Mordor, but it is far harder and more exploited than we might assume. The effort here is to shake the mindset of France as an idyllic setting for the 75% who are peasants. Materially, life is not greatly improved for the peasants since Roman times.The nobility is immune from most taxes and the worst depredations of the tax farmers. During his lifetime, his long, long lifetime Louis XIV kept the nobles in check, but he did not destroy the formal institutional basis of noble power as had been done in England. This is the key development of this time period, I assert.We begin looking at a few aspects of Louis' government, much more to come.
41 minutes | Dec 3, 2021
77. War of Spanish Succession Part 4; Gibraltar, North America and Peace
We cover the campaign to take Gibraltar and hold it 1704-5, including the great sea battle of Malaga. We cover the war in North America, the breaking of Spanish power and the confused picture in Nova Scotia, where after the peace none of the participants understand the consequences of the peace the same way. And the introduction of paper money as legal tender in the colonies as an accidental innovation to cope with the wars.We cover the peace and its a few of its consequences. There will be many episodes on the consequences of this peace to come. One is making London the center of European finance.With Camie we cover the global aspect of the war, review the scale of naval warfare, the horrid conditions of the siege of Gibraltar, paper currency, the leading impact of capital markets on economic growth from Richard Sylla, and the ending of the slave trade.
42 minutes | Nov 19, 2021
War of Spanish Succession Part 3 , Marlborough, Rooke, Oudenarde, Malplaquet and Vigo
The war continues with continued victories for Marlborough, but coalition politics and politics in London spell bad news for John Churchill. A discussion of the strategic realities of seapower leads us to cover Rooke's first expedition in 1702 that ends with the utter destruction of French and Spanish fleets in Vigo Bay.With Camie we discuss the puzzle of the Dutch trading with the enemy, which is some presentism on our part and what I prefer to call a mindset problem for us. Also of course she is curious about Sara Churchill and her relationship with Anne Stuart and Anne's unhappy efforts to create a family.
44 minutes | Nov 5, 2021
War of Spanish Succession Part 2 , Marlborough, Blenheim, Ramillies
Marlborough's earliest campaigns covered in great detail.There is an analysis of why Marlborough's armies were able to defeat what were previously the greatest armies in the world. This is a highly controversial topic.With Camie we cover the famous anecdotes, the women dressed as men serving as soldiers, the British tendency to shoot their officers if they don't like them, the crisis of each battle.
44 minutes | Oct 21, 2021
74. War of the Spanish Succession Part 1 -Marlborough and Isaac Newton
We discuss many of the political and financial issues around the Spanish Succession war. We introduce the idea of the fiscal military state, and how that relates to the miracle story. We cover how Isaac Newton helped King William execute his wartime strategy to fund the wars against Louis XIV. The Duke of Marlborough gets introduced but the accounts of his exploits will begin next episode.
62 minutes | Oct 6, 2021
73. Nine Years War, War of the Grand Alliance, King Williams War
So many names for one war. We focus on the war at sea and in North America. The peace of exhaustion and provide an introduction to the War of the Spanish Succession. The great strategic outcomes of the is war are covered as well. The financial revolutions that financed these wars is introduced. Nine Years War, War of the Grand Alliance, War of the League of Augsburg, King Williams War. Write to email@example.com with your preferred name.
39 minutes | Sep 24, 2021
72 Intro to the Second Hundred Years War
We take a look at the big themes we will be discussing. This include Naval Mastery, the Balance of Power, continuity between the wars, the sudden growth of the British empire, the birth of modern politics, and invasion scares.There is also a good deal of review of the mindset ideas from Anglo-Saxon/Viking times through the Middle Ages and the difficulty of truly understanding the religious influence of the early modern period. And the fish, yes the fish.Even if you know a lot about Napoleonic warfare you might pick up a new idea deriving from the importance of the Camp of Boulogne.
54 minutes | Sep 10, 2021
71. 2nd Hundred Years War Part 1; 1672 The Disaster Year
"It takes but one foe to breed a war," says Faramir in the Lord of the Rings.1672 was the Disaster Year for the United Provinces, and a life changing trauma for William of Orange. We cover the cannibalistic crowning event, the Bombing Bishop and the Wild Hunt. Appeasement as a concept when Louis XIV is in your neighborhood. We do a quick round up of 16th and 17th century Spanish and French history as well, as we try to get ready for 1688 and the Second Hundred Years War.
49 minutes | Aug 27, 2021
70. The Causes of the Industrial Revolution via Sheila Ogilvy
The long promised look at Big History , we lay out 5 themes for the Causes of the Industrial Revolution. Near the end there is the real answer. Fish. 1. Cultural, unique features of English culture or values allowing for dignity and hope.2. Numbers game, When you get a production function where wages are high enough and capital cheap enough you get demand for labor saving organization and automation.3. The universal human drive to improve material living conditions is held back by elites acting in their own interests, except for short periods allowing innovation. One view of this theory allows for China to be the main innovators, later copied by England.4. Scientific and cultural advances from the Enlightenment allowed for a greater supply of innovation.5. History is just one damned thing after another.
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