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The Brazil Culture and History Podcast
35 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 012 - Forging an American Empire (Quick History #7)
Today we’re going to talk about Pedro I’s successor, his son, Pedro II. He will rule the Empire of Brazil for 58 years, until its demise in 1889—making him one of the longer ruling monarchs in all of history. e will guide Brazil through a series of revolts to prosperity then through a devastating war and beyond. Like many of his peers in this group, he became a monarch young, at age 5. Photos Portrait of Teresa Cristina. c1843. Teresa Cristina at age 55, 29 March 1877 Map of the conjunction of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina and the contested territories at the time of the Paraguayan War. Leopoldina, Pedro II, Teresa Cristina (around age 41) and Isabel, c. 1863 Sources Brazil: Five Centuries of Change by Thomas Skidmore Brasil: Uma Biografia by Lilia Moritz Schwarcz and Heloisa Murgel Starling
17 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 011 - Lava Jato #2
A brief update on the on-going corruption investigations and current political situation in Brazil. Thousands, sometimes millions of people have protested against (in some combination): corruption, the currently-in-power Workers’ Party, President Rousseff, and ex-President Lula.There have been counter-protests, but in general they have been smaller as the Workers’ Party’s support has plummeted as a result of the scandal. Impeachment seems imminent. See the full episode notes here: http://brazilcultureandhistory.com/bchp-011-lava-jato-2/
42 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 010 - A Trans-Atlantic Game of Thrones (Quick History #6)
In this episode we explore the period from 1808 to 1831: how Brazil fared with the royal family in residence, the oblique path it took to independence, and the turbulent rule of its first emperor, Dom Pedro I.For all their faults, without the royal family's presence, Brazil could not have made the first steps toward economic independence so quickly nor likely remained a single country. The other side of this is that their tenure in Brazil made independence a prolonged process instead of a clean break. Although that break would be accomplished with less bloodshed than others in the Americas. At the same time tensions over the form of the government, the role of the emperor, successions issues, and resistance to independence itself would force Brazil's firt leader to abdicate not one but two thrones.Who's Who?Maria I: (1734-1816) Called the Pious in Portugual and the Mad in Brazil. Mother of João VI. She ruled as Maria I until 1799 when she was forcefully retired due to mental instability.João VI: (1767-1826) Prince Regent and later King João VI of the United Kingdoms of Portugual, Brazil, and the Algarves. The only European monarch to set set foot in let alone rule from a New World colony.Carlota Joaquina of Spain: (1775-1830) Wife of João VI and daughter of King Charles the IV of Spain.Pedro I: (1798-1834) Son of João VI and later Emperor of Brazil and King of Portugal.Maria Leopoldina: (1797-1826) Daughter of daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, Archduchess of Austria. First wife of Pedro I.Amélie de Leutchenberg: (1812-1873) - Second wife of Pedro I. Daughter of of General Eugène de Beauharnais and Princess Augusta of Bavaria.Isabella Maria: (1801-1876) Younger sister of Pedro I, João's designate as regent for his "legitimate successor".Miguel I: (1802-1866) Younger brother of Pedro I. Exiled for wanting to restore the absolute power of the monarchy.Maria II: (1819-1853) Maria da Gloria, daughter of Pedro I. Would become Queen of Portugal after her father's brief reign.
34 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 009 - Scandal a go-go (Current Events)
Oh, how the mighty have fallen. A few years ago, Brazil was the darling of the BRICS countries: host of the World Cup and Olympics, 7% annual growth, lifting millions out of poverty... now, inflation if up, growth is not just down but negative, joblessness is on the rise, the government is barely functioning, and people are questioning whether Brazil can manage the Olympics.How did it all go so wrong so fast? It's a complex question with a complex answer, and part of the answer has been brewing for longer than you might think.
31 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 008 - Revolt Interrupted (Quick History #5)
Wars and revolutions wrack the Americas and Europe. Colonies are becoming nations and monarchies are falling. And it's all because of the French. (Okay, not all, but a lot of the blame is theirs.) Brazil starts making tentative steps toward independence, but the revolts are interrupted when the royal family enacts plan B.Sources for this episode:1808, Laurentino GomesBrazil: Five Centuries of Change, Thomas E. SkidmoreBrazil: uma biografia, Lilia Moritz SchwartzA History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807, Volmes 1 & 2, A. R. DisneyIt's with a twinge of regret that after this episode we have to set aside A. R. Disney's excellent two volume history of Portugal and its empire. (Note the "to 1807" part of the title.) It has been a great resource for these first few history episodes!
26 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 007 – Gold in Them Thar Hills (Quick History #4)
The 18th century brings unforeseen prosperity to the Portuguese Empire and Brazil in particular. People, political power, economic power and attitudes would all soon be on the move.Gold and diamonds spill from the backcountry. Much is smuggled, but much makes into the crown's coffers. The crown takes barely a look at the Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution and conservatively buries its head in precious minerals.The riches are in the southeast, until this point little more than a hinterland. But they would draw people and slaves not only from Portugal and its empire, but from within Brazil itself. The shift was seismic and Brazil would be forever altered. As if to counter this, Lisbon used the windfall to remain as much the same as it could.But change is the only constant. Read the full post here.
29 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 006 – The Dutch Strike Back and Brazil Strikes Cold (Quick History #3)
We cover the rest of the 17th century in this episode. The Dutch recover from their initial failures to conquer Portugal's Atlantic colonies and conquer northern Brazil along with several other colonies, including Angola. The Dutch were pretty decent rulers, but there were too many cultural differences. In the midst of this, Portugal decides to reestablish its crown separate from Spain and must fight for its existence against Spanish, leaving Brazil and the colonies largely on their own in fighting the Dutch. Exciting times!See the full show notes here.
9 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 005 - Crucifixions, Resurrections, and Conspiratorial Teeth-pullers
Three national holidays - Good Friday, Easter and Tiradentes - in one weekend? What craziness is this? Spend a few minutes learning about Easter in Brazil as well as how a martyr for independence earned the nickname Teeth-puller.TermsDia de Tiradentes - national holiday that commemorates the execution of Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, aka Tiradentes.Joaquim José da Silva Xavier - a member of the Minas Gerais conspiracy, earned the nickname Tiradentes at his trial because he practiced dentistry.Ouro Preto - a center of the gold rush in the 18th century; today a small city famous for its colonial architecture and Páscoa and Carnaval traditions.Páscoa - EasterSemana Santa - Holy Week, the week before PáscoaSexta-Feira Santa - Holy Friday (Good Friday)Minas Gerais Conspiracy - (Inconfidência Mineira in Portuguese), a failed attempt to start a rebellion against the Portuguese crownTiradentes - a derogatory term for a dentist, literaly "teethpuller"Páscoa PhotosCarpeted street in Ouro Preto Carpeted street in Ouro Preto Religious procession in Ouro Preto Religious procession in Ouro Preto Chocolate Egg roof in a supermarket In case you are overwhelmed by the Páscoa products selection, the store has friendly Páscoa Consultants to help! Street vendors display their Páscoa wares. The Porto Alegre Fish Fair, which takes place the day before Sexta-Feira Santa. There is a LOT of fish for sale.
31 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 004 - Colonial Era, 1500-1630 (Quick History #2)
As I mentioned in the show, this doesn't cover nearly as much as I had naively planned when first setting the podcast up. I suspect this is a trend that will continue with the rest of the (not so) quick history episodes. So it goes. I'd rather cover things at an appropriate level of detail than slavishly stick to a schedule. I hope you agree.My guess is that we will not finish the colonial period with the next episode, but who knows. I have most of the reading I want to do for the colonial period done, but have not started writing. Regardless of how far we get in the next episode, I should be able to turn it around fairly quickly, since I have almost no research to do for it.MediaImagesBelow are a few maps to accompany the show as well as a timeline, list of Portuguese terms I used and the longer list of names, places, and events that are mention. This lists should be complete, but if I missed something, let me know and I'll add it.The approximate locations of the Spain-Portugal dividing line according to Pope Alexander and later the Treaty of Tordesilhas. Also includes the Saragossa line, which in essence defined the location of the Tordesilhas line on the other side of the world. A rough map of the locations of the various tribes inhabiting the coast around 1600. Of course the boundaries were not so sharp and many territories overlapped and intermingled, so I'm certain one could find inaccuracies if they want. A summary of the various holdings at various times (i.e. it's not a snapshot in time) of the Portuguese Empire Hans Staden account linksAs mentioned in the show, links to the story of Hans Staden, a German gunner who worked for the Portuguese and was captured by Indians and later ransomed by the French.As aventuras de Hans Staden, Portuguese introduction accompanying a facsimile of the 1557 German editionThe Captivity of Hans Staden of Hesse, in A.D. 1547-1555, Among the Wild Tribes of Eastern Brazil, the only English translation I could find. Published in 1874 and includes annotations by Sir Richard Francis Burton (!).Viagem ao Brasil na Biblioteca Nacional Digital, in Portuguese in case you hadn't guessed. Dates, Places, People, TermsTimeline1492 - Columbus reaches the Americas.1498 - Vasco de Gama reaches India.1500 - Pedro Álvares Cabral leading a 2nd voyage to India veers far to the west and arrives at the coast of Brazil on April 22nd then claims it for Portugal.1501 - Gonçalo Coelho's voyage, explores coast in Rio-SP area.1502-1530 - Feitoria (trading fort) phase, traded with Indians for Brazilwood.1532 - Donataria of São Vicente founded in the present-day state of São Paulo by Martim Afonso de Sousa and 400 colonists.1532-???? - Settlement/colonization phase.1540c - majority of the donatarias have been abandoned or are struggling.1549 - Tomé de Sousa appointed 1st governor-general of Brazil.1550-1600 - Portuguese and French expansion triggers conflict with various Indians tribes.1553 - São Paulo founded.1555 - Frenchman Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon founds France Antarctique near the site of present-day Rio de Janeiro.1558 - Mem de Sá becomes governor-general.1565-67 - Rio de Janeiro is founded and French expelled.1581 - Crowns of Portugal & Spain are united when Felipe II of Spain becomes Filipe I of Portugal1600c - European Population Portuguese America reaches 30,000, the vast majority in Bahia and Pernambuco.1615 - French fort of St. Louis is taken by the Portuguese, effectively ending French presence in Brazil.1616 - Belém founded at mouth of Amazon.1621 - Dutch West Indies Company (WIC) founded.1624 - WIC captures Salvador, but it is retaken by the Portuguese the next year.1630 - In Pernambuco, WIC forces capture Olinda and Recife. Portuguese termsdonataria - large area of land granted by the crown to a donatário, also known as a captaincy.donatário - the owner of a donatariafeitoria - garrisoned trading postaldeamento - mission settlement, in Brazil most of these were run by Jesuitsmameluca - girl or woman of a white & Indian unionmameluco - boy or man of a white & Indian unionmulatta - a girl or woman of a white & African unionmulatto - a boy or man of a white & African union People, Places, and EventsBattle at Alcácer Quibir - the disastrous battle that precipitated the take-over of the Portuguese thrown by the Spanish.Cabo Frio - the first feitoria established in BrazilCardinal Henrique - King of Portugal, 1578-1580 and the last before the 60 year period of Spanish rule.Diego de Lepe - the second Spaniard to explore the coast of BrazilDuarte Coelho - the donatário of the donataria of Pernambuco, one of the two successful donatarias.Duarte Pacheco - a Portuguese navigator who may have explored Brazil's coast 2 years before Pedro Álvares CabralEstácio de Sá - nephew of Mem de Sá, killed defeating the French in BrazilFelipe II - King of Spain, 1556-1598. Also, for various periods of ruler of Naples, and England and Ireland. Became King of Portugal as well in 1580.Filipe I - Felipe II's title as ruler of PortugalGonçalo Coelho - leader of the 2nd voyage to BrazilHans Staden - A German mariner who sailed with the Portuguese, captured by the TupinambáIgarassu (sometimes Igaraçu) - a city in Pernambuco founded by Duarte CoelhoJoão III - King of Portugal, 1521-1557Manuel I - King of Portugal, 1495-1521Martim Afonso de Sousa - commander of small fleet dispatched by King João III to secure Brazil against the Dutch & FrenchMem de Sá - 3rd governor-general of Brazil, founder of the city of Rio de JaneiroOlinda - a city in Pernambuco founded by Duarte CoelhoPedro Álvares Cabral - (probably) the first Portuguese captain to reach BrazilRio da Prata (Spanish: Río de la Plata) - a river that reaches the Atlantic near, but on the Spanish side of, the Tordesilhas line; considered by Portugal to be the 'natural' boundary between their and Spain's holdings in southern South AmericaSalvador - first capital of Brazil and current capital of the state of BahiaSebastião I - king of Portugal from 1557-1568 (minority) and 1568-1578. Killed at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir.São Vicente - the first permanent settlement in Brazil, in present-day São PauloTabajara - a Tupí tribe that lived in the coastal areas of the present-day states from Pernambuco to Ceará.Tomé de Sousa - 1st governor-general of BrazilTreaty of Tordesilhas (Spanish: Tordesillas) - treaty between Portugal & Spain that divided the (heathen) world between them for purposes of trade, colonization and religious conversionTupinambá - a Tupí tribe from the donataria of MaranhãoTupí - the name of one of the major families of South American languages as well as the peoples who speak themVincente Pinzón - the first Spaniard to explore the coast of Brazil Sources All books this time:"1493", by Charles C. Mann"A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire", volumes 1 & 2, A. R. Disney"Brazil: Five Centures of Change", Thomas E. Skidmore"1565: Enquanto o Brasil nascia", Pedro Doria
19 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 003 - Carnaval, in the name of moderation
A short, impromptu episode about Carnaval that grew longer than I intended. It covers the origins of the holiday and its history in Brazil including the differences between Rio's Carnaval and how Carnaval is celebrated further north in cities such as Salvador.Terms used in the podcast:ala - wing or section, a section of a Carnaval processionaxé - a popular fusion music style developed in the 80s that quickly made its way into Carnaval.Bacchus - the Roman god of wine and drinkingbateria - the drum sectionbloco - block, as in a group not a city blockcapoeira - an Afro-Brazilian martial art famous for its kicks and acrobaticscarnaval - Portuguese for Carnivalcarnavalesco - the person in the school with overall responsibility for that school's Carnaval preparationscarro alegórico - literally, allegorical car, a float.Dionysus - the Greek god of wine and drinkingEntrudo - a pagan festival celebrated in Spring in Portugal and Spain that was the precursor to Carnaval in Brazilfrevo - a fast past musical style associated with Carnaval in the north, played on wind instrumentsmaracatu - a mid tempo music associated with Carnaval in the north, played on drumsmestre-sala - the "room master", position in a samba procession whose job it is to honor and direct attention to the porta-bandeiraporta-bandeira - the woman who carries the flag of the samba school in its processionpasso - the capoeira-based dance of frevorainha de bateria - the queen of the drum, the dancer who leads the percussion section of a Carnaval processionSalvador - the capital of the state of Bahiasamba - the most common dance style associated with Carnaval, especially in the south.Saturn - A Roman god with many associations, but relevant to spring festivals are renewal and timeSanturnalia - a spring festival that honored Saturntrio eléctico - a soundstage on wheels MediaAs promised in the podcast, I've including some photos as well as links to some videos.Carros alégoricosPhoto by Leandro Neumann Ciuffo from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Photo by Boneysp Photo by Léo Pinheiro Trio elétricosAn undecorated trio elétrico (photo by Tennessee7). A trio elétrico decorated and in action (photo by Wmourac).FrevoPasso, just a little physically demanding. Yep. (Photo by Andre bispo.)MaracatuA small Maracatu block procession. A traditional Maracatu dance. (Photo by Pcoke.)VideosA typical Frevo street performance in Recife (the capital of the state of Pernambuco)."Learn Frevo dancing for Carnaval", in Portuguese, but it's dance, so it's the visuals that matter.Brilliant Star Maracatu Nation procession in Carnaval 2012 in Recife.A clip from the 20 year anniversary DVD of the Pernambuco Maracatu NationBrilliant Star Maracatu Nation in Recife's Carnaval, 2009And, in the category of "who knew they had not just Carnaval that far north, but frevo too", the Helsinki Samba Carnaval 2008 - Sambic Frevo dancing performace
30 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 002 - The Pre-Columbian period (Quick History #1)
What was Brazil like before the arrival of the Portuguese? How did the early Amazonians live? Where did they come from and when?Why did Europe finally sail into the west? What was going on in Spain and Portugal that prompted people to make the first dangerous voyages into the Atlantic?It's a lot to cover, but, with a lot of reading, writing, recording, agonizing over what details to put in, which prompted some rewriting and rerecording, episode 2 is complete.I almost split this into two episodes, but I really want to get through the 'quick history' stuff so we can start exploring various aspects Brazil's history and culture. There are many topics in this episode alone that are worthy of more thorough treatment, so please let me know in the comments if any of them in particular pique your interest.Also, a map of Iberia at the beginning of the 14th. Surely easier to understand than my verbal attempt at describing the locations of the 5 kingdoms of Portugal, Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Granada. As promised in the podcast, I included the list of sources I used for this episode. It's a long list, but most of them are articles of only a few pages long. Unless you want to dig into the academic articles, I would instead recommend the two books in the list, "1491" and "1494". They're well researched but also well written so quite accessible. Enjoy!Finally, there is some annoying background noise at times in the audio. I cleaned things up as best I could, but it's still noticeable here and there (although I did get manage to erase or record all the spots where my neighbor's fantastically annoying dog was barking). My apologies for the iffy quality here and there. SourcesCharles C. Mann, "1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus", Alfred A. Knopf, 2005 (book)Stephen R. Bown, "1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half", Thomas Dunne Books, 2012 (book)Michael J. Heckenberger, et al., "Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest or Cultural Parkland?", Science, September 19, 2003, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/301/5640/1710Michael J. Heckenberger, et al., "The legacy of cultural landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon: implications for biodiversity", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 28 February 2007, vol. 362 no. 1478, http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/362/1478/197.fullWilliam M. Denevan, "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 82, No. 3, September 1992, http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~alcoze/for398/class/pristinemyth.htmlAnna C. Roosevelt, "Paleoindian Cave Dwellers in the Amazon: The Peopling of the Americas", http://library.worldtracker.org/Science/Science%20Magazine/science%20magazine%201995-1996/root/data/Science%201995-1996/pdf/1996_v272_n5260/p5260_0373.pdfW. George Lovell, “Heavy Shadows and Black Night: Disease and Depopulation in Colonial Spanish America", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 82, Issue 3, 1992, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1992.tb01968.xNicholas Wade, "Tools Suggest Earlier Human Exit From Africa", New York Times, 27 January 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/science/28africa.html?pagewanted=allCharles C. Mann, "The Real Dirt on Rainforest Fertility", Science, Vol. 297, 9 AUGUST 2002, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/297/5583/920Pena SDJ, Di Pietro G, Fuchshuber-Moraes M, Genro JP, Hutz MH, et al. (2011), "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected", PLoS ONE, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017063Bruce Bower, "Disputed finds put humans in South America 22,000 years ago", Science News, April 20, 2013, https://www.sciencenews.org/article/disputed-finds-put-humans-south-america-22000-years-agoUniversity Of South Carolina, "New Evidence Puts Man In North America 50,000 Years Ago", ScienceDaily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041118104010.htmAthena Review, An interview with Drs. Niède Guidon, "Pedra Furada, Brazil: Paleoindians, Paintings, and Paradoxes" http://www.athenapub.com/10pfurad.htmDallas Morning News, "Central Texas site holds North America’s oldest proof of human settlement, researchers say", March 24, 2011, http://www.dallasnews.com/news/state/headlines/20110324-central-texas-site-holds-north-americas-oldest-proof-of-human-settlement-researchers-say.eceBBC documentary "Unnatural Histories", Episode 3: "Amazon". http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0122njp
18 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 001 - Geology & Geography
Today we cover a very tiny amount of the geology & geography of South American and a more substantial, but still limited, amount of Brazil's physical and political geography. I also tacked on a thumbnail sketch of how the government is organized today since it seemed to go well enough after the political geography.Go the the web site to read more.Going forward I'll provide lists of unfamiliar terms and names in the podcast descriptions. This episode's terms & people are:Iquitos, Peru - the furthest city upstream from the ocean than can be reached by ocean-going vessels via the Amazon.Pantanal - a huge, perrenial wetland in the west.Cerrado - the grasslands of the south.Caatinga - the dry scrubland of the northeast.Mata Atlântica - the forest of the southern coast.Dilma Rousseff and Michel Temer - the president and vice-president respectively.Henrique Eduardo Alves - president of the lower legislature, the Chamber of DeputiesRenan Calheiros - president of the upper legislation, the Federal Senate.Supremo Tribunal Federal or STF - the supreme court.Joaquim Barbosa - president of the STF.If a picture is worth a thousand words, these three maps are worth more than the text of the episode itself (which came in at 2,250 words).The South American tectonic plate, its neighbors, and directions of movement The 5 regions of Brazil and the states that comprise them. The green line marks the limit of the Amazon Basin while the yellow the limit of the Rainforest.
4 minutes | 5 years ago
BCHP 000 - Introduction
Wherein I introduce myself and the podcast.For more information about this episode and the podcast in general, visit the website, http://brazilcultureandhistory.com/.-Cary
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