32 minutes | May 2, 2019

Episode 3: Raising a Wall in Berlin

Episode 3. Raising a Wall in Berlin During the Cold War, tensions over the status of West Berlin never stopped to worry western leaders. Between 1958 and 1961, tensions increased and it seemed that Europe would soon be dragged into another war. The United States, the United Kingdom and France began work on secret contingency plans for the defence of West Berlin, codenamed LIVE OAK.  In this episode, we discuss how General Norstad prepared for the defence of West Berlin, how the crisis in Berlin put into question NATO’s nuclear posture and a new, ‘flexible’ nuclear response.  SHAPE Website: https://shape.nato.int/history/raising-a-wall-in-berlin  HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso GUESTS: Colonel Adam Edmunds, Diego Ruiz Palmer, Dr. Gregory Pedlow  Sources: NATO Declassified: The Cold War https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_139429.htm  NATO Archives Online: Military Planning for Berlin Emergency (1961-1968) https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/70925.htm VIDEO: Background to Berlin (1962) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e3DWwQkv8HM Three-Power Declaration on Germany, 11 May 1965 https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26646.htm?selectedLocale=en Declaration on Germany, 15 December 1966  https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26667.htm?selectedLocale=en Gregory W. Pedlow, NATO Strategic concepts, 1949-1969 https://www.nato.int/archives/strategy.htm
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