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Episode Info: In this episode, we look at Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and how to build a new habit.  Join Blinkist: Why We Want to Build Habits Habits make taking action easy Habits allow behavior changes to stick Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a technique frequently used in behavioral training in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke the same response as the naturally occurring stimulus, even without the naturally occurring stimulus presenting itself. Throughout the course of three distinct phases, the associated stimulus becomes known as the conditioned stimulus and the learned behavior is known as the conditioned response. Examples: "John B. Watson's experiment with Little Albert is a perfect example of the fear response.10 The child initially showed no fear of a white rat, but after the rat was paired repeatedly with loud, scary sounds, the child would cry when the rat was present. The child's fear also generalized to other fuzzy white objects. This experiment illustrates how phobias can form through classical conditioning. In many cases, a single pairing of a neutral stimulus (a dog, for example) and a frightening experience (being bitten by the dog) can lead to a lasting phobia (being afraid of dogs)." Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. When a desirable result follows an action, the behavior becomes more likely to occur again in the future. Responses followed by adverse outcomes, on the other hand, become less likely to happen again in the future. Examples: "If your child acts out during a shopping trip, you might give him a treat to get him to be quiet. Because you have positively reinforced the misbehavior, he will probably be more likely to act out again in the future in order to receive another treat." Resources: --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. ...
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