Bennis, Warren and Burt Nanus. Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. Second Edition. New York: HarperBusiness Essentials, 2003. The main stem-winder, in all cases, is the leadership. The new leader … is one who commits people to action, who converts followers into leaders, and who may convert leaders into agents of change. We refer to this as "transformative leadership"…. Books on leadership are often as majestically useless as they are pretentious. …all organizations depend on the existence of shared meanings and interpretations of reality, which facilitate coordinated action. The actions and symbols of leadership frame and mobilize meaning. Leaders articulate and define what has previously remained implicit or unsaid; then they invent images, metaphors, and models that provide a focus for new attention. By so doing, they consolidate or challenge prevailing wisdom. The distinctive role of leadership is the quest for "know-why" ahead of "know-how."… Into every step taken by the administration goes a complicated pattern of meetings, disagreements, conversations, personalities, emotions, and missed connections. In order for an organization to have integrity, it must have an identity-that is, a sense of who it is and what it is to do. Almost every "false step" was regarded as an opportunity and not as the end of the world. They were convinced that they could learn-and, more important, that their organizations could learn-how to succeed at whatever they undertook as their vision. For successful leadership to occur there has to be a fusion between positive self-regard and optimism about a desired outcome. …they paid attention to what was going on, they determined what part of the events at hand would be important for the future of the organization, they set a new direction, and they concentrated the attention of everyone in the organization on it. …a vision articulates a view of a realistic, credible, attractive future for the organization, a condition that is better in some important ways than what now exists. By focusing attention on a vision, the leader operates on the emotional and spiritual resources of the organization, on its values, commitment and aspirations. The manager, by contrast, operates on the physical resources of the organization, on its capital, human skills, raw materials and technology.