The A320 Podcast
About This Show
Its our aim to make studying for your recurrent sims or command upgrades as easy as possible.
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Most Recent Episode
1 day ago
There are three types of aquaplaning - viscous, rubber reversion, and dynamic. Viscous This occurs when a thin film of contaminant creates a break in the contact of the tyre with the runway surface. This type normally only occurs on unusually smooth surfaces such as the runway touchdown zone where there is an excessive build-up of rubber. Viscous aquaplaning can occur even in damp conditions at high and low speeds. Because there's no actual contact, no marks are left on the runway. Reverted rubber This type of aquaplaning occurs when a stationary tyre (so either 'locked up' during braking or at touchdown) is dragged across a surface causing friction at the contact point. The heat produced by the friction boils the water on the surface creating steam. The pressure of the steam lifts the centre of the tyre off the surface leaving the edges still in contact creating a seal which traps the steam, this then melts the rubber and reverts it to its unvulcanised state. Friction levels during this type of aquaplaning are the equivalent of icy runways. The tyre will have 'bubbled' rubber deposits on it and the runway will show marks in the form of being pressure washed as the tyre effectively 'steam cleaned' it. Dynamic aquaplaning Now this is the most common type of aquaplaning and the one that's most likely to affect us. Aircraft in general are prone to this one because it's a relatively high-speed phenomenon that occurs when there is a film of water on the runway that is at least 2.5 mm deep. As the speed of the aircraft and the depth of the water increase, the water layer builds up an increasing resistance to displacement, resulting in the formation that wall of water beneath the tire we mentioned earlier. Once the tyre speed gets to the point where it can no longer displace the water quick enough it starts to aquaplane. At some speed, termed the aquaplaning speed (Vp), the upward force generated by water pressure equals the weight of the aircraft and the tire is lifted off the runway surface. In this condition, the tires no longer contribute to directional control, and braking action becomes very poor once in this state. When we use the landing distance calculations, aquaplaning is taken into account when contaminated performance is selected. Airbus says "Performance data for landing on runways contaminated with standing water, slush and snow include accountability for the reduced wheel braking on the c